The construction of the garage is troublesome, but partly pleasant. At the very least, everyone who is passionate about construction works can enjoy the process itself. The construction of the garage begins, of course, with a drawing. And the foundation to it, as well as any other construction, serves. Improperly laid foundation can destroy all the work, so you need to know all the details of its arrangement. In the article we will talk about how to fill the foundation under the garage with your own hands, consider the various options: tape, floating, rubble.
- The first stage of work is the drawing of the future structure. It is necessary not only to calculate the amount of materials for the garage. Before you make the foundation for the garage, you must also determine the location of the structure and know where to dig the trench and what size it will be. Therefore, all drawings and plans are made in advance.
- At the initial stage, a place is chosen for construction. It is advisable to carry out a soil analysis before construction work. This is necessary in order to know the characteristics of the soil. Depending on the type of soil, additional structures (for example, a drainage system) will have to be installed. Also, the soil significantly affects the depth of the foundation.
- If you do not want to conduct a study of the soil, then on average it is necessary to set the depth of the trench for the foundation at the level of 1 meter, and its width should be at least 40 cm.
Under the garage there are many types of foundations. Theoretically, the builder can install almost any of them, with the exception of those that may prevent entry to the premises. Making the foundation for the garage with your own hands, it is better to choose a kind of it that does not require heavy equipment and a large amount of labor.
The most common option is a monolithic strip foundation. It is fairly light in execution, except for the abundance of earthworks. You can also make a concrete foundation, which is a kind of tape.
- First, you need to determine the size of the foundation. They depend on the size of the future garage and its severity, as well as on the characteristics of the soil. On average, the depth of the trench under the foundation should be from 70 to 100 cm, and its width is about 40 - 50 cm. Width can be increased. The length is determined by the dimensions of the structure.
- After the marking has been made, it is necessary to begin earthworks. The depth of the basement under the garage, as well as other characteristics, should be measured.
- When the trench is ready, you need to pour sand and crushed stone on the bottom. The composition is rammed to increase the density.
- Now it's time to install the formwork. There are two ways to get the formwork for the foundation: you can buy it or make it yourself. The second option is less preferable if the builder does not have skills of similar work. In the process it is very difficult to withstand all sizes, and the formwork must be executed immaculately. Each of its elements must be made extremely precisely in size, so it is better to purchase a ready-made kit or order its manufacture. Formwork installation is made as standard. The main thing - in the process of work, how to fix it, so that there are no distortions and deviations.
- After installing the formwork, you need to start pouring the foundation. Before pouring, you should decide whether to reinforce the structure. If so, then it is necessary to install reinforcing bars or even reinforcing mesh.
Pouring concrete is not done immediately, but in stages. At each stage, the concrete must be poured so that its layer is about 20 to 30 cm. When this layer dries out, you can do the following.
The process of creating a strip foundation in video format:
Concrete фундамент гаража — одна из самых экономичных конструкций (особенно, если учесть, что отсутствуют траты на работу бригады строителей). Для его строительства потребуется цемент и бутовый камень.
- First, make the layout of the foundation and dig a trench, as in the arrangement of strip footing.
- Then prepare the rubble and cement brand 400, as well as sand and gravel.
- Sand and crushed stone poured on the bottom and tamped.
- Preparing a solution of sand with cement. Two buckets of sand should be put on each bucket of cement. Water for such a composition will be required around the bucket.
- The first row of rubble is laid on the bottom. From above the stone is poured over with a cement-sand mixture. Then you need to lay the stone again and pour the solution. So work should be continued until the last layer of cement reaches the edge of the trench.
Floating фундамент — это разновидность ленточной конструкции. Он отлично подойдет в том случае, если гараж будет строиться на не слишком надежном грунте. Такой фундамент сможет выдержать колебания почвы и капризы погоды, а также достаточно высокие нагрузки.
What is a floating foundation? It resembles a reinforced concrete slab, which at the same time is recessed. For the construction will require cement, reinforcement or reinforcing mesh and roofing felt. In addition, it is necessary to stock the tool.
There are three types of floating (slab) basement:
- monolithic lattice or modular;
- monolithic reinforced at the edges.
The most economical option is the first. The second option, especially collapsible, is expensive. The average in terms of strength and cost is a monolithic slab foundation with stiffeners.
For not too large garages and a simple floating foundation will do. It will be indispensable on heaving soils.
- First, dig a pit of necessary depth. Usually it is determined by the nature of the soil.
- At the very bottom of the pit it is necessary to put sand. The sand pillow is rammed.
- After that, a reinforcing mesh is installed on the sandy layer. It will serve to enhance the design.
- At this stage, you can pour the foundation with concrete. In some cases, the owners first install concrete blocks on the grid, and only then the structure is poured with a mixture for reinforcement.
- After the cement has dried, you need to make the floor in the garage. To do this, spend the usual tie with sand and cement.
In any case, after the foundation is made, it is necessary to carry out hydro- and vapor barrier of the floor. You can also install and drainage systems.
The foundation for the garage of the foam block
If you decide to build a garage of foam blocks, then constructing a foundation for it, it is worth considering the technical characteristics of the blocks. Foam block itself is a light material. Therefore, to build too powerful and heavy foundation is not necessary. In such circumstances, the type of soil on the construction site plays a big role.
On how to build a garage of foam blocks, you can get more information here in this article "Garage of foam blocks."
If the groundwater level is below 2 m, then it is sufficient to build a strip foundation with a depth of up to 0.5 m. Why such a contrast, if the foam block itself is a light material? The fact is that this material does not tolerate bending stress. As a result, it cracks and collapses. And if the ground begins to move, then to prevent this, a concrete slab is installed on the foundation. As a result, the walls and the foundation will be one. The walls of foam blocks will never go to a break.
But there is one limitation. If you plan to build a viewing pit in the garage, the concrete slab is not suitable. In this case, you will need to build a combined foundation of pile-tape or recessed tape.
About the device of the floating foundation the following video:
The photos show various options for arranging the foundation for a garage: