The main task in the construction of the building is the choice of the type of foundation. It directly depends on the properties of the soil and its heaving. Loose soil during freezing expands, rises and leads to cracks in the foundation and directly on the structure.
In order to solve this problem, a foundation is made at a depth below freezing, but this option is not suitable for light buildings, so a shallow-foundation is used as an alternative.
Knowing how to make a shallow foundation correctly, you can easily do the work yourself. Installation of this type requires the integration of all parts of the structure into a single foundation, which is responsible for balancing the soil deformations and distributing the load along the entire perimeter of the foundation. With a ribbon shallow foundation, a single frame is obtained, and with a columnar one, the supporting elements are fixed with steel beams or monolithic grillages.
When installing shallow basement there is the possibility of a slight rise of the base. However, the deviations should not be greater than the limiting calculated values, which depend on the type of construction and the materials used. Also of importance is the presence of a rigid structure construction, resistant to deformation during soil freezing.
Based on the functional purpose, two types of shallow foundation are used:
- Ribbon. For its construction, a trench is excavated and tamped down with the subsequent installation of a sand cushion;
- Columnar. Installation is based on bored or driven piles.
If the installation is carried out according to the technology, the construction on this basis will be operated on a par with the buildings on the buried foundation.
When using a shallow foundation, the financial, labor and time costs of construction work are much less.
Manufacturing of a shallow base
For the installation of a fine foundation, it is necessary to establish a sandy or crushed stone non-crumbling bedding. Based on the calculated value, the choice is made in favor of a strip or columnar foundation.
Mounting tape type
There are several ways to mount the base ribbon melkozaglublennogo foundation, which depend on the degree of soil heaving on-site erection.
The most reliable way is one in which a monolithic reinforced concrete tape is constructed directly on the construction site. The depth of laying of the grillage should be 50-60 cm. If the soil is weakly lousy, the role of the base is played by blocks of concrete, fastened together by pouring concrete of interlacings of block reinforcement releases. The higher the heaving index of the soil, the more rigid the structure must be, respectively, it is necessary to use monolithic elements.
As the soil becomes more complex at the construction site, the process of self-erecting the column foundation becomes more difficult. If soil heaving is strong or medium, then there is a need for more rigid fixation of elements into a single structure. This is done by pouring a monolithic grillage or strengthening steel beams.
When installing the columnar foundation, it is necessary to use the pillars that serve as a link between the building and the site. For this, a distance of 20 cm is left between them, thanks to which the changes occurring during the freezing of the soil are balanced.
Rules for calculating grounds
- Initially, it is necessary to carry out activities that will help determine the nature of the soil. Further, based on these indicators, the design is selected and the foundation is calculated;
- The height of the foundation is determined by the obtained values of the area of the main sole. Often, the height is set twice the width;
- Be sure to carry out calculations of the foundation of the possible deformation.
Soil properties can be determined without special studies. To do this, you need to make a well with a depth of about two meters at a distance of half a meter and make a visual study of the soil at depth. If the quality of the soil is poor, it is desirable to replace most of it with a more favorable soil, as which sand can be used. It will take more time and effort, but this way you will reduce the likelihood of your home shrinking and deforming during the cold season.
With the observance of technology, the shallow foundation will ensure the reliability of the structure for a long time, so the house built will please not only you, but also several generations.
The technology for creating a shallow foundation is covered in the following video: