When a house is built in several floors, there is a need for a ladder to move between them. The flight of stairs can be ordered ready or done by yourself.
As in the construction of the house, it is important planning and design, selected by the style of the house. Stairs can be of the following types:
- screw (rectangular, faceted, semicircular, curvilinear);
- March (straight, angular, single march, multi-march);
- on the hats;
- on the tendons.
Calculation of the number of steps
But in any case, it is necessary to calculate the slope, the number of steps, their height. To do this, measure the distance from the ceiling to the floor, add the thickness of the slab and divide by the height of the steps. On average, it is allocated about 15 cm. After such a calculation, it becomes clear how many steps there will be. The flight of stairs should not be very steep, if there are children and elderly people in the house, then such a construction is life threatening. In this case, the safety precautions are violated, and the passage of the stairs will cause fear. The most acceptable angle of inclination is 30-45 °. The width of the march should be about a meter, otherwise it can cause inconvenience; if it is narrow, walk closely, and when wide, it creates a feeling of bulkiness.
When all calculations are made, it is necessary to decide what material to make the stairs. The classic option is to build it from wood. Although possible options for metal structures, reinforced concrete, forged, stone with decorations of ceramics or glass.
The tree can be taken such as birch, oak, pine, ash. When the steps are chosen, the wood is picked up without flaws (knots, irregularities, roughness), planed (only from it comes production). Before use, the wood must be dried, covered with stain (gives color) and several layers of waterproof varnish (protects wooden products). Before the final consolidation of the stairs do the fitting and adjust the parts to fit. If everything is in order, the assembly of the whole structure begins.
Kosoura made from boards, whose thickness is 50–70 mm, width - 250–300 mm. Attach them to the floor and the longitudinal beam of the floor and insert steps. Attachment options for kosoura also different:
- overhead (bulky ladders);
- Mortise (step inserted into the cut groove).
To work with wood, you will need: a jigsaw or a saw (cut out parts), a hammer, chisels narrow and wide, a screwdriver or screwdriver, a plane.
Video: installation of a spiral staircase made of wood
Reinforced Concrete March
Reinforced concrete structures are poured out of concrete and iron frame (reinforcement). Make the casting base, for which the necessary parts are cut from the tree on the formwork. It should be without gaps and strengthened so that concrete does not flow out. It must be remembered that the concrete staircase is heavy and requires powerful props, firmly installed.
The frame is mounted according to the drawing, the reinforcement is interconnected or welded and tested for strength. Concrete is poured in and compacted and dried for about 4 weeks. The finished product begins to use after a month.
The reinforced concrete staircase is planned together with the construction of the house, in the future it is not loosened, it increases the strength of the house, and rust does not destroy it.
Concrete can be decorated with decor in various versions: sheathe wood, build in the backlight, put ceramics.
Video: concrete stairs
To create this option, you need a Bulgarian, a welding machine, a set of levels, wrenches, a hammer, an electric drill. The skeleton is made according to a drawing, from an I-beam or pipe more than 8 cm. This option requires good anticorrosion preparation, otherwise the effects of rust that appear during evaporation cannot be avoided. The steps are made of a couple of corners on which the base is laid (marble, planks, metal).
In all variants, the steps are made only parallel to the floor and the embedded parts for fencing are necessarily thought out. Handrails must be set for safety during movement.
Use for production metal rolling or wooden elements, and also other materials. Balusters, bearing elements of the railing, are their support and decorative element of appearance. To fill the space between the posts, they use forging, carved cloths and glass. Handrails should be made so that they were pleasant to touch by hand; There should be no roughness or chipping.
Video: metal ladder installation