Nowadays, the fireplace has already ceased to be a vital heating structure and in most cases serves only as an original element of the interior. However, the fireplace can still be considered as an additional source of heat, but only while it is burning. This is what determines, in the main, its location - summer houses and country houses, in which it is customary to install a fireplace in a large hall.
The device and the laying of the fireplace is a bit simpler than that of other foci (for example, stoves) and therefore it is quite possible to carry out a small fireplace yourself. In the article we will tell how to lay the fireplace itself out of bricks.
Before you start laying out the fireplace, it is worth deciding in what room you will do it. The minimum area of the room required to ensure the normal operation of the fireplace (without cold drafts or excessive heating) is 20 square meters. meters The ratio of the opening area of the fireplace firebox to the area of the room should be in the range from 1:70 to 1:80.
The most popular option is to set up a fireplace in the wall opening so that its back wall faces the adjoining room.
If you lay out the fireplace near the partition of combustible materials, you need to pay attention to compliance with fire safety standards, that is, perform the mandatory vertical fire prevention.
The next step is the selection of fireplace drawings, which show all the rows of masonry (if you are a beginner, then choose a simplified version that does not require complicated fitting bricks or putting them at an angle).
Now you should prepare the necessary materials to lay down the fireplace yourself:
- concrete and fittings for the device of a separate foundation under the fireplace;
- ceramic brick of good quality (full-bodied red, without cracks and chips), or white refractory brick (Gzhel), or fireclay refractory brick;
- дверка прочистная;
- Stainless steel sheet on the screen.
Since the fireplace must necessarily have its own foundation (not in contact with the foundation of the walls of the house), it must be completed in advance, no less than two weeks before the laying of the fireplace. This will allow the foundation (the material of which can be not only reinforced concrete, but also rubble stone or brick) to gain the necessary strength. For a rubble brick or a brick concrete foundation, a cement-lime or cement mortar must have a grade not lower than 50.
The depth of laying the foundation for a fireplace should be no less than the depth of soil freezing in your area, and the geometric dimensions of the foundation in the plan must strictly correspond to the shape of the fireplace, taking into account the "allowance" of 50-100 mm from all sides.
Before you make the foundation for a fireplace, you should make sure that when laying brick stack does not rest against the beams of the attic or truss system.
We proceed to the device of the foundation under the fireplace:
- We dig up the pit of the size you need, taking into account the fact that it will either install formwork (if the foundation is reinforced concrete), or work on laying bricks or large stones will be carried out. The depth of the pit should be about 10 cm more than the depth of the foundation.
- We carefully tamp the bottom of the pit.
- We fall asleep at the bottom of the foundation pit small stones (gravel, crushed stone) about 10 cm thick and again we tamp.
- Further, the work process depends on the material from which the foundation will be executed:
- for reinforced concrete - install the formwork, then lower the reinforcement cages into the pit and fill the concrete;
- for concrete - we pour a mortar at the bottom of the pit (20-25 cm in height), sink stones into it (with a gap of 3 cm), put a smaller stone in between, then similarly perform the following rows of the foundation under the fireplace.
When performing the upper part of the foundation (protruding above the ground), large stones can be used as a formwork, laid around the perimeter of the foundation.
The foundation should not reach 14–15 centimeters to the level of a clean floor. The upper surface of the foundation under the fireplace should be flat and strictly horizontal.
Making sure that the foundation mortar has finally hardened, you can start laying the fireplace:
- On the top of the foundation, apply a cement-sand mortar with a layer of about 2 cm and lay a layer of brick on it. Check the horizontal surface.
- Apply a second layer of mortar and lay another row of bricks.
- Lay on top two layers of roofing material (as a waterproofing).
- Prepare a cement-clay-sand mortar for laying fireplaces: 8-9 parts of sand (by volume) are taken for one part of cement (grade 150), everything is mixed, and then clay pulp (slip) is carefully added to the mixture. Consumption of sand and clay (by volume) is about the same. For masonry lintels, the cement and sand content varies to 1: 5 or 1: 6. It is not recommended to increase the cement content in the solution, since clay is still the main binder of the components in it.
- In strict accordance with the chosen scheme masonry, proceed laid out the fire. For its front surface brick select the same color, size, with straight corners and edges. Seams do strictly the same size, keeping them vertically and horizontally. Accord seams shape (concave or recessed) by means of grouting. Pay special attention to putting a symmetrical lintel over the fireplace opening (in some cases it is recommended to use formwork).
- Since it is difficult to fold the fireplace for the very first time, and sometimes the laying does not look beautiful, you can plaster the finished fireplace.
- The chimney should be laid on a clay-dusted solution, followed by plastering. In places of intersection with combustible elements of the overlap firebreak cutting is performed.
In the following video you will see how the fireplace is being built:
Having watched the following video, you will learn what features of air circulation in the fireplace exist and how to optimize heating with the help of a fireplace: