What happens to the brick if it is thrown into the water? This question may seem silly enough. But if you still try to convince him that he will float? In fact, a cement construction material has been developed that can boast such characteristics. In order to fully experience the good quality of this product, it is important to know how a polystyrene concrete house is built with your own hands.
New word in construction
Initially, this building material was conceived as an opportunity to eliminate the need for wall insulation from the outside and to eliminate the use of flammable foam. Ingredients include Portland cement, polystyrene foam granules, water and resin-based plasticizers. Developing the entire half century, but despite this, she has already managed to win her fans. There are no restrictions on temperature conditions, as well as environmental humidity. The final product can withstand up to 300 cycles of complete freezing and thawing.
Are there any minuses
Here are just some of the reasons for the high popularity of polystyrene foam concrete:
- small weight;
- the possibility of giving any form;
- ease of construction;
- the ability to create a monolithic house;
- resistance to heat and fire;
- sufficient density for comfortable hanging furniture and other products;
- excellent thermal insulation;
- sound-proof characteristics allow cutting off waves up to 72 dB;
- there is no need to use heavy machinery when erecting a structure and delivering materials;
- significant savings compared with other brick-lined blocks;
- ease of fitting blocks, even with a regular hacksaw.
Of the minuses, it is possible to identify poor vapor permeability, which can lead to accumulation of moisture, as well as the fact that it is not known how foamed polystyrene behaves over time. The level of styrene that is released into the air remains unexplored. Also, after a strong fire, the walls will have to be completely demolished, although the unit does not burn, it loses its strength and also releases toxic gases. But even in such an emergency you should not doubt the reliability of the building.
In the study, polystyrene concrete was exposed to a temperature of 1000 ° for more than an hour, but this did not lead to its destruction.
Read more about the advantages and disadvantages of the material described in the video:
Types of construction
As in the case of expanded clay, the possibility of block and monolithic construction of the building is available. For the second option, it will be necessary to take care of the correct installation of the formwork with observance of a certain profile of components, which will make it possible not only to provide better weaving, but also to eliminate cold bridges. Blocks can be made at home. It does not need a lot of strength and great skills. However, they can be of different configurations, tailored to a specific project.
Independent production of blocks
In order for the final product to be of the highest quality, it is necessary to observe the ratio of the components. Bearing walls carry a large load, so the composition, in addition to the main components listed above, also adds sand.
The process will be as follows:
- A little less than 1 bucket of water is poured into the mixer. If necessary, make the composition more fluid, it can additionally be added to the process. Additives are poured into the water, they need 2% of the total planned volume. This composition is well mixed. To simplify the process, you can use not a regular concrete mixer, but a stationary mixer. It looks like a barrel in a horizontal position, inside which the blades rotate.
- Then 3 buckets of polystyrene foam granules are filled up. This is half the required amount. This part is filled up now to reduce the amount of cement that can stick to the walls.
- Inside poured 1 bucket of cement. Everything is mixed to a homogeneous mass.
- The last component will be sand, it will need 3 buckets.
- After the sand, the remainder of the required volume of PVG is immersed.
- The inclination of the container must be kept so that the foam granules do not fly out.
- The solution should be quite dry, then it will be easier to work with the forms.
- A flat surface is selected, on which it will be possible to store finished products for a day. This may be a room or a courtyard. It is important that the ambient temperature is above + 15 ° C. Only in this case it will be possible to guarantee the high quality of all the processes.
- Inside the device are installed the holders of voids. The space around them is filled with the finished mixture. It is not necessary to ram too much; it is enough to evenly distribute it over the entire area of the machine.
- Next, the top of the design is covered with a special bar and pressed a little.
- Hollow cores are removed and the form is removed.
- It is desirable to cover the finished material with plastic wrap to protect it from getting wet. In this form, it is left for 24 hours, after which it can be folded for further drying. After 4 weeks, the blocks are ready to be laid.
The machine for manufacturing is a regular metal box. You can make it yourself for the size of the planned blocks. To do this, you need a sheet metal with a thickness of 3 mm. Hollow cores are made on the basis that the wall thickness of the block is about 5 cm (or you can use ordinary sleeves from a pipe with a diameter of 50-60 mm). For the clamping bar will need a square with a size of 50? 20 mm. To make it easier to lift the form, the handles are welded to the sides, and a side is welded to the top face for more convenience when laying the raw materials. The compaction process can be accelerated by attaching the engine and making an offset center of gravity on the shaft, which will cause vibrations. It is necessary to turn on the vibrator only for a few seconds, with a longer operation time, the integrity of the blocks may be disrupted.
We save on the foundation
The total weight of the structure is relatively small, so the foundation can be made of this design, which will be the minimum cost. For example, a good option would be pile supports, a columnar foundation or a tapeless base. We will consider the screw pile, because It can be used on almost all types of soil. Components for it are purchased in a specialized store or made independently. The essence of the method lies in the fact that metal pipes are immersed in the ground, which will serve as reference points for the entire building. One element is able to withstand a load of 20 tons.
- Usually a pipe with a diameter of 80 to 130 mm is used for manufacturing. What exactly the size of each element will need in a particular case will depend on the quality and density of the soil.
- The length should be such that the blades could be immersed 50 cm below the ground freezing, and the upper part protruded 30 cm above the surface. This will allow the supports to maintain stability even in cases where the layers may move due to expansion.
- It is desirable that the sleeves are intact without finished parts, otherwise in the process of tightening it may simply break or later rot over the seam.
- The butt that will sink into the ground must be sharpened. To do this, vertical cuts are made to a depth of 15 cm, after which the individual parts are bent in the middle and boiled using a welding machine, the seams need to be cleaned and polished well.
- The screw diameter is also an individual component. Its size will depend on the depth to which the dive is planned, as well as determining the composition of the soil. The greater the length of the pile, the smaller the screw will be. The fact is that the thicker the layers, the harder it will be to twist. For its production can be purchased blank. If you want to do it yourself, then you will need a sheet metal of 5 mm. It is possible to use disks from a tractor hinge plate. Patterns cut elements. They are semicircles with a part selected in the middle that is equal to the diameter of the pipe. They need to bend in such a way that they make a 5 cm step. They are welded to the stand.
- In the upper part of the pile, it is necessary to make a transverse hole designed for a lever that will allow turning.
Installation of the whole structure does not require much effort, but it will take at least a few assistants.
- The territory is marked by the parameters of the future building.
- Corner pivot points are applied.
- Notes are made every meter.
- Piles are screwed along the marked points. It is important to ensure that the elements are strictly vertical. This can be achieved by several bubble construction levels. If they have a magnetic base, then they are simply mounted vertically on the pipe, otherwise they can be wound with adhesive tape or tape.
- In advance on each column, you can put a label to which you want to dive.
- Once you reach the required level, you need to align the height of all elements.
- The one that is below is selected. The marking is applied on it and it is cut if necessary.
- Water level size is transferred to all other elements.
- In order to be able to place a concrete grillage on top, square pads with a size of 25 × 25 cm are welded.
- Sheets of ruberoid with an overlap of 10 cm are laid over the inner area. From above they are covered with sand, which is well rammed. This is done in order to prevent the growth of weeds under the house.
- Piles will not perform their function if they are not combined into a common structure. This can be done by welding on top of the channel.
The foundation of screw piles is not recommended to be concreted. If you decide to use concrete, then there are 2 ways: concrete is poured in the form of a grillage or in the form of a socle.
- If the first option is chosen, then you need to take care of high-quality formwork. It should be from durable boards, because she will need to hold the weight of the concrete to a certain degree of setting. It is important to remember that the width of the foundation should be 15 cm greater than the width of the wall, only because of this it will be possible to make a quality floor. Its height is 30 cm or more. The metal base of the reinforcement is placed inside the formwork, then everything is poured with concrete and is well rammed to fill the voids.
- In the case when the basement strip foundation is planned, then a certain degree of land works will be required. It is necessary to dig a trench to a depth of 50 cm. Its width is the same as the width of the foundation from the previous paragraph. Sand is poured in a layer of 15 cm; it must be well compacted by tamping. Another 15 cm is filled with rubble and is also well rammed.
- The next step is to install the formwork. This must be done in such a way that the piles are in the middle and are subsequently submerged in concrete from all sides.
- The height of the future fill above the surface should be 70 cm. For such a level, several reinforcing structures may be needed. Apply fittings with a diameter of not less than 12 mm. Additionally, you can tie it with piles.
- Cooked concrete is poured into the middle. To be sure that it is distributed over the entire planned area, it is necessary to use a vibrator.
- In order for concrete to be “alive” for a longer period of time, plasticizers must be used. This will also eliminate the formation of layers when the gap between the fillings is not observed.
During the laying of the foundation, care must be taken to leave the sleeves for communication. So it will be possible to greatly facilitate further work on the laying. In addition, for the basement floor it is necessary to make vents that will prevent the accumulation of moisture inside.
The first few days in hot weather it is necessary to pour water ready concrete. This is necessary so that it does not crack. Also, to preserve moisture inside it is better to cover it with roofing felt or plastic wrap. There are no prohibitions to use the classic version of the recessed foundation. The advantage of polystyrene concrete is also the fact that when cracks appear at the base of the wall, they remain without damage.
Walling is fast
Walls can be driven out in three ways:
- removable formwork;
- fixed formwork.
In the case when ready-made blocks were acquired or they were cast independently, then the decision will be obvious. After a month, when the concrete of the foundation gained sufficient strength, you can proceed to the following actions.
- Select a place to start laying. This will be the highest angle. You can define it in several ways. If you have a laser level, then it turns on in the direction of the foundation, a parallel line is projected. Using a tape measure from the line to the base. Where the distance is the shortest, you need to start from there. A more affordable way can be the water level. One of the containers is fixed at an arbitrary angle. The second is necessary to bring to each of the remaining and, having waited, when the water is balanced, to fix the differences.
- Before you start laying, you need to take care of waterproofing. To do this, bikrost or roofing felt is laid on the concrete surface in two layers. In this case, it is desirable to roll them in whole stripes. If this is not possible, then it is necessary to overlap and missed the joints with bitumen mastic.
- The first block is set using a bubble or laser level in all planes. The solution layer for this series can be up to 3 cm.
- Taking the first stone as a basis, according to its position, an element is drawn from the opposite side, towards which the laying will go.
- The corners with protruding ligation blocks are displayed in several rows.
- A fishing line is pulled between them. It should be exactly the level. Thanks to it, it will be easier to navigate when building a wall. With each new row, it is moved to a higher level. It must correspond exactly to the outer line of the rearrangements.
- To make the walls vertical, you must constantly monitor the line with a plumb line or level. Additional metal guides that dig in two at each corner can also be a good reference.
- If blocks with through voids are laid, then it is necessary to perform vertical reinforcement. For this, two elements of the metal frame are installed in the corners. It is extended in the course of advancement and will correspond to the full height. Throughout the length of the wall rods are inserted metal reinforcement.
- Laying factory monolithic blocks, it is necessary to insert a sealing cord into the grooves. Every few rows need horizontal reinforcement. To do this, the metal mesh is placed in the seam. The thickness of the seam is better not to do more than 8 mm. Otherwise, this will lead to the appearance of cold bridges, which will worsen the characteristics of the building.
A special glue is used as a solution. It has better adhesion characteristics compared to conventional sand-cement mixture.
If it was decided to build a monolithic wall, the first thing to do is to take care of suitable materials for the formwork. You can use plywood with a thickness of 15 mm. In order for it to be less exposed to moisture, it is wrapped in plastic wrap. Additionally, you will need clamps. They should open to the width of the future wall plus the thickness of the formwork. To make it easier to independently expose the sheets you can make a simple device. To do this, you need a profile tube with a size of 40? 30 mm. Its size should be 5 cm larger than the wall thickness. Every 20 mm welded lengths of reinforcement are 10 cm long. It should be a comb.
- Fill as well as laying, begins with the corners. In this case, there is no need to look for the highest point.
- Mounted start profile. It needs to be selected for plywood thickness. It is attached to the concrete base with dowels and screws. For this you need a punch, because the finished plate has high strength.
- Two sheets are inserted perpendicular to the profile. They are fixed between a metal corner.
- After the external elements of the angle are exposed, the internal ones are mounted. This is where the comb is needed. It is inserted between the sheets and holds one of them while the other is being mounted. For internal elements also screwed metal corner.
- The ends are closed with slats. But it is important that they are specialized. There must be a protrusion that is shaped like a spike. After pouring and solidification, a notch is formed, it is necessary so that the next layer lays down well and does not form cold bridges.
- So that the formwork does not crawl, you can make an additional fixture of a square tube with a size of 50? 30 mm. It should resemble the letter P. The length of the upper plank is equal to the width of the wall plus the thickness of the formwork. Height - so as to close the sheet almost to the bottom. Before filling, the bracket is put on and holds two sheets together.
- End plate is pressed with the help of clamps.
- The ratio for the preparation of the mixture will be the same as in the manufacture of blocks.
- After unloading into the formwork solution, it must be well compacted to the walls turned out without voids.
- The formwork can be dismantled after a few days.
- The top layer can be poured without waiting for the previous solidification. At the same time, shields are not removed from the lower level. The next row is simply mounted on top. In this case, it is important to calculate the load.
If there is a desire to immediately finish, then the formwork can be made permanent. Its essence is to fill the space between the two brick walls. At the same time, the external one is laid out of a facing stone under the jointing.
- The highest angle is selected, as described above.
- The laying of the outer and inner walls begins.
- During construction, when the ligation will be carried out, it is necessary to stack the bonded brick through a row, which turns inward - it will perform a reinforcing function.
- Filling is made in the course of advancement of a laying.
For this option, you will have to spend a little time at the beginning, but later it will result in significant savings.
Even before the forcing of the walls it is necessary to note the locations of the doors and windows. In the course of construction, you can use improvised frames of knocked-down boards to make it easier to keep dimensions. Subsequently, they can be removed. You can insert the finished frame immediately after the roof is covered. The house does not undergo shrinkage, like many other materials, so there will be no problems with the fact that the plug-in structures will crack or break the glass from the load.
Some manufacturers make blocks of polystyrene concrete with a raised face in the form of a specific ornament. If such a stone is used, then the facade is automatically revetted. If desired, you can buy already painted elements or open them with the composition of the concrete after all the work is completed.
Polystyrene concrete floor
Under the sub floor it is necessary to make a sand bedding to the height of the base. She is well rammed. For this, it is better to use special vibration machines. The next step will be placing beacons. In their role can play the most ordinary wooden pegs. They must be on the same level. To achieve this, the laser level will be a great helper. A line is projected onto the height of the planned subfloor (usually 20 cm). The wooden components are recessed until the mark is at the extreme point of the upper edge. The solution is prepared the same as when pouring the walls. He poured out on the surface, leveled and tightened with the help of the rule. At the same time you need to rely on lighthouses. This floor does not require additional heat, steam and waterproofing. The next day you can walk on it, continuing the construction. Finishing finishing screed is done during interior decorating.
Before filling it is necessary to lay all sewer and water pipes. Otherwise, you have to destroy the finished plane.
Polystyrene concrete house does not limit the customer in what kind of roof will be mounted. As a truss system, you can choose, single or dual slope. Attic space can be left under the attic. When calculating the roof, it is necessary to take into account the weather conditions and the maximum gusts of wind that may be in a particular area. This will give the opportunity to choose the optimal angle of inclination. The roof slope must protrude at such a distance that the flowing rainwater does not undermine the foundation. To do this, also provide a blind area. The framework can be assembled both from wood and from a lightweight metal profile. If you properly warm the ceiling and flooring, then in case of using the second option, the air will not freeze to such an extent that it will lead to large heat losses. By the way, from the attic part of the ceiling, you can also make a screed using polystyrene concrete. It is lightweight, so it will not carry a large load.
Do I need a finish
Finishing is necessary for any home. To a certain extent, it not only allows you to give a pleasant appearance to the walls, but also protects against various influences. We have already mentioned that the planes on the outside can be trimmed with either a decorative brick in the process of laying, or a special block. You can always go the other way. Polystyrene concrete perfectly interacts with ordinary plaster, so you can apply a classic fur coat, which requires almost no maintenance and can last for a long time.
Another option would be siding, wooden paneling, block house or other material of a similar type. In this process is facilitated by the fact that there is no need to fix the insulation. Everything happens quite quickly: the crate is installed and the area is sutured. There is no urgent need for waterproofing, since concrete with polystyrene perfectly repels water.
You can also use plaster for interior decoration. Next, the walls are plastered and painted or covered with wallpaper. Nobody forbade to sew up all the planes with drywall and apply finishing layers to it.
A mandatory step will be the installation of high-quality ventilation system. It is better if it is forced-air and exhaust. The urgent need is explained by the fact that polystyrene concrete has almost zero vapor permeability. This means that all the steam released by people, which rises when bathing or cooking, will accumulate. If it is not removed in a timely manner, it will lead to the development of fungus and mold. As a result, the entire interior will be spoiled. In order to remove the infection, it will take a serious work, and it is not always possible to complete it. This step must be taken into account even at the design stage, so that technological holes can be left during construction.
For more comfort, you can make and fix the visor above the entrance doors. The porch, which is tiled, will also give a special charm. Rainwater gutters can be connected to a collection system. Subsequently, it will be very useful when watering plants.
In the course of reading the article, you most likely noticed that the project of such a house can be easily implemented with one assistant. In this case, you can not be afraid for ripped backs, because this building material is so practical and easy that it does not cause much trouble.
In this video you can see how easy it is to build a polystyrene concrete house: