Being engaged in facing of the house, special attention should be paid to the finishing of the base. Depending on the construction technology, it can be a separate element or be a separate part of the foundation, which rises above the ground. Unlike the main wall, it has direct contact with the ground, which is why it is required to pay a lot of attention to finishing this area. It may well be done decorating the base with their own hands, but at the same time experts recommend to take into account some points and nuances.
Types of cap
Before you study the materials and technologies for finishing the basement, you should decide on its appearance. So, depending on the location of the foundation to the outer plane of the wall, the following main types are distinguished:
- The speaker This foundation is poured for thin walls, so you should first worry about the arrangement of the drain. Otherwise, water will accumulate on the ledge. As a result, it will lead to destruction.
- One level. In modern construction, this technology is rarely used, since in the process of exterior finishing it will be too difficult to achieve the desired level of waterproofing.
- Falling away A common option that will be easy to protect from the effects of natural factors, as it does not need to arrange the drain. Facing in this case will be less deformed by snow and rain.
A fairly common method of finishing the foundation, moreover, it does not require special knowledge or abilities. Works are performed in the following order:
- Cleaning the surface of the foundation from dust and dirt.
- Deep penetration primer application.
- In the presence of clearly defined irregularities, it is recommended to fix the reinforcing mesh. Suitable welded, woven or made of fiberglass.
- Applying a layer of decorative plaster.
- After complete drying, you can proceed to staining.
Preferring decorative plaster, it should be remembered that for finishing the protruding base this option is not suitable. High loads on the material will soon deform the applied layer, and it will lose its appeal.
Prints of a drawing or a pattern are put on a still wet layer of plaster, and also structuring is carried out.
Facing base can be both natural and artificial stone. Let us dwell on the natural version. Keep in mind that it has a lot of weight, so the finishing process will be quite time-consuming. Despite the complexity of the process, many decide to do it themselves. The order of work is as follows:
- Cleaning and priming the surface.
- Selection of suitable elements in shape and size.
- The application of the adhesive solution in a thick layer.
- Stone laying, starting from the bottom row. This will prevent the heavy stone from sliding down.
- Coating frost-resistant and water-repellent composition.
It is also worth considering that the stone will add to the load on the foundation. Additional calculations will be required to ensure that such a finish is possible.
This artificial material in modern construction and decoration is very common. The list of its benefits can be credited:
- wear resistance;
- resistance to temperature extremes;
- low water absorption.
Due to the presence of the latter indicator, porcelain tile is insensitive to frost. To date, the building store has a large range of porcelain tiles:
- imitating leather, stone and fabric.
Considering the process of finishing the basement of the selected material, it should be said that it is fixed either on the frame or with special adhesive solutions. The frame method is provided for carrying out additional warming. This method is more laborious, but you can also do it yourself:
- Foundation preparation: cleaning and priming.
- In the role of the frame are metal slats with already existing special fasteners. It is with their help that the slats are fastened to the base. As a result, a small gap is formed between the wall and the grille for ventilation.
- From the ground to the beginning of the frame there should be a distance of 20 cm. This will be enough to lift the ground in winter.
- In the resulting gap is embedded insulation to choose from. It is best to give preference to foam or mineral wool.
- With the help of klyaymer, the frame is covered with ceramic granite plates.
If we talk about adhesive solutions, then everything is much simpler: glue is applied on the prepared foundation and a stone is fixed on top.
It is prohibited to use cement mortar, as in this case the stone will simply peel off in the cold.
Among the budget methods of finishing the base this is the best. The whole secret lies in a simple method of installation: the elements are joined together in a groove-ridge manner. The result is a durable surface. Thanks to the siding covering, the foundation of the house will be reliably protected, as the innovative material has significant advantages:
- resistance to high and sudden temperature changes;
- low sensitivity to moisture;
- there is a wide range of colors and shapes of the plates.
In most cases, vinyl panels are used, if necessary, to conduct external insulation. The algorithm of actions is quite simple and implies the existence of such processes:
- Waterproofing: the film is laid with an overlap of 10-15 cm and fixed with nails or building tape.
- Installation of horizontal battens. Metal slats are used. The pitch is calculated individually according to this scheme: 1/3 of the panel length. At the same time, the lowest plank should rise above the ground at a distance of 15 cm. The resulting gap should correspond to the size of the insulation plus 3 cm for ventilation.
- Laying heat insulator and vapor barrier.
- From the bottom of the sheathing, at the corners, the first plank (corner profile) is fixed.
- Subsequent panels are fixed in the starting plate and loosely screwed with screws. From the bonnet to the panel there should be a 3 mm gap, since the material may change in volume under the influence of atmospheric phenomena.
- For the protruding base on top set a special ebb.
The unique production technology of siding allows you to transfer the texture of expensive wood, natural stone and other materials.
Clinker tiles can also be used as facing material. Clinker tiles are very popular in the modern building materials market. The surface may be different:
- imitate brick;
- imitate paving stones.
When finishing the basement of the house with ceramic tiles, the following works are supposed:
- Surface cleaning and leveling with special mixtures.
- Preparation of the adhesive composition according to the instructions on the package. Drawing on the foundation layer with a thickness of 4 mm.
- Start laying from the outside corner. Particular attention is paid to vertical seams, which should not be the same. For the convenience of creating smooth seams, it is recommended to use special crosses, which are then removed.
- The final stage is the grouting of special cold-resistant compounds.
To emphasize the unity of the design of the whole house, the clinker tiles are used not only for decorating the base, but also for the corners of the walls.
When applying the solution it is necessary to ensure that no voids form. Otherwise, in the winter time they will expand, and the tile will disappear.
In fact, the list of possible materials for decorating the foundation is several times larger. So it is possible to finish the base of the house with glass, limestone or fragments of ceramics. For these cases, it is recommended to perform the process as follows:
- Cleaning and leveling the surface.
- Calculation of the required amount of material, according to the allotted area for lining.
- Priming the base with concrete carbonate. Removal of excess cement on the foundation.
- Applying tile glue or cement (depending on the selected material for lining). Apply it in stages.
- Fixing limestone or colored glass to the prepared base. Fix lightly tapping to release the air.
- Filling voids between large pieces of small broken elements.
- Stripping seams.
- Covering the dried surface with varnish and mounting a protective visor over the projecting part of the foundation.
It is recommended to purchase material at least 5% more so that there is a stock.
Thanks to the finishing of the base, you can simultaneously solve several problems: direct protection, additional insulation, as well as giving a complete look. Only the owner himself can choose the best option, since the choice will depend on personal preferences and desires. Independently perform the lining is not so difficult, as can be seen from the above article.
How to finish plinth, see below:
How to install a basement siding
Construction of the basement