The gable is considered to be carpenters facing a log house, it attracts the eye and can tell a lot about the experience and skill of the craftsman who created it. This term refers to the part of the wall, starting after the attic floor and ending under the ridge of the roof. Chopped pediments of wooden houses made of logs and logs are a characteristic feature of Old Russian architecture. The secrets of the construction of this traditional architectural element were passed on by the masters from the generation, being essentially the apex of carpentry art. In this article we will talk about the design features and felling of male gables.
Types of gables
Log houses and logs on the territory of Russia do not lose their popularity even with the advent of cheaper and faster house building technologies. Adherence to traditions is due to the excellent thermal insulation qualities of natural wood, environmental friendliness and durability of this material. Modern masters involved in the construction of log cabins, cut houses of 2 types:
- With male gables. Chopped pediments, also called masculine, are made from logs of various sizes, the males. They are priruby or installed on the extreme crown of the well of the log house with the help of dowels. The device of the male gables is more complex than the frame analogues, and the cost of additional material can be 1/3 of the total cost of a log. But on the other hand, a wooden house with such a design looks complete, harmonious, perfectly retains heat and corresponds to the best examples of traditional Russian architecture. Felling of males is carried out directly on the construction site, for this purpose they hire a team of experienced craftsmen who know about the features of working with wood. Most often the gables felled from a log are erected if the project of the house provides for a slab rafter system.
- With frame gables. This method differs from the manufacture of chopped gables in that only a log well is assembled from a log, and the space between the roofing slopes is stitched with a cut board. Such a device is much cheaper and simpler than the traditional male. However, when constructing a frame pediment, the border between the frame and the wired gable wall is clearly indicated, which makes the house look less presentable. In addition, houses, the gables of which are sewn up with the help of boards, require additional warming, as they keep heat worse and protect from cold wind penetration.
Note! Male gables, made and logs, weigh much more frame structures. Therefore, it is important to determine which scheme of finishing the space between the slopes, you need during the drafting of the project. This is necessary to calculate the load when determining the depth of laying the foundation.
Chopped or male gable is a wall located between the slopes of the roof, which is made of the same material as the walls of the log house, log or bar. For construction, durable, healthy logs with a cross section of 230-250 mm, pre-treated with antiseptic impregnations, are necessary. Male gables are installed on the outer walls of the log house or make a slight displacement inward to equip the balcony. The chopped construction consists of the following elements:
- Males. This term refers to the logs from which the pediment is cut. They have different lengths, since each succeeding male is shorter than the previous one. To install the male on the extreme crown of the log house, a semicircular chute is made with the help of a chainsaw and hen. It is important to ensure full fit between the logs.
- The soldiers lie down. Slags are logs, priruvaemym to males, which bind the gables to ensure the rigidity of the structure. They are necessary for the construction of the traditional slab rafter system. If the distance between the gable does not exceed 6 m, then slings are cut at the construction site, otherwise they are made together with a log house.
- Prince slega. Knyazeva is called a slug, mounted on the upper male. It connects the upper parts of the gables with each other, essentially being the ridge of the roof. On the prince’s bed, the truss legs are knitted, so it must be durable and withstand great weight. If the run between the gables exceeds 6 m, a double sleg is installed. It is believed that for a ridge beam it is better to use a simple uncylndated log, since it has greater strength.
Important! The assembly of the chopped pediment is performed using an inter-ring compactor. In this role, jute, moss, tow, flax fiber are usually used. These materials seal the gaps arising in the process of shrinkage of the log house, preventing heat loss. Traditionally, the space between the males was laid with moss, now he considers the most expensive seal. Therefore, cheaper but equally effective tape materials based on jute and flax fiber are used more often.
Features of felling
Device рубленных фасадов является сложной строительной задачей, особенно если она связана с сооружением слеговой стропильной системы. There is no doubt that the log facade, the horse and the slings with the removal look spectacular and organically, but the age-old Russian aesthetics require additional costs for the purchase of wood and the hiring of experienced craftsmen who will perform the cutting. It depends on the quality of the assembly of the log house whether it will withstand the winter frosts, as well as how long the house will serve, therefore it is important to find professional carpenters whose knowledge and experience are sufficient for this task. When chopping male gables consider the following features of this design:
- The higher the front wall of the house, the greater the shrinkage in 1 year of operation of the house. Therefore, it is better to leave tall two-story log houses for shrinking for 1-1.5 years, so that it will take its final dimensions, and then proceed to the construction of the roof and interior decoration.
- Due to the triangular shape of the masculine pediment, the shrinkage of this part of the wall is uneven. Shorter upper males shrink and change in size more than lower ones. Such a shrinking scheme leads to a change in the geometry of the roof and destruction of contraction, if the fastening was carried out without compensation elements.
- If a standard truss framework is used for the construction of the roof, in which the slopes lean against the gable walls, during the shrinking of the males, upper logs of the upper rims may occur. To prevent such a situation, the rafters are attached using metal brackets or special slider anchorages.
- To compensate for the shrinkage of the rafters with rigid fixation to the walls, ridge joints are made with a small gap. Since the wood’s legs cannot descend when the wood dries, they rise, and then close in the skate area.
- If the roof of the log house is of the mansard type, then you will have to abandon the installation of the male gables, because the broken design of the truss system cannot be mounted on sliding fastenings. Since the roof rigidly fixed to the males during the shrinkage of the log house can be deformed, it is better to sew up the pediment with a frame structure.
Professional craftsmen claim that the cost of building chopped pediments pays for itself if the log house is used constantly and is heated. Excellent thermal insulation quality logs help reduce the cost of heating the attic, and an attractive appearance allows for interior trimming.