The architectural image of the building is built brick by brick from the material used for the construction, planning, number of floors, and the shape of the roof into a single picture. In order for the house to look harmoniously and seamlessly, it is necessary that all these elements be mutually combined.
Since the construction of the roof is almost the last stage of construction, many relate to the choice of roofing and the type of construction on the residual principle. But professional architects and designers know that the design of the roof of the house is the final touch that brings together the look of the structure, giving it a finished look.
Roof structure and functions
The roof is a complex structure that overlaps the upper floor of the building in order to protect the interior of the building from the penetration of rain, wind, snow or cold. It consists of a kind of skeleton, a frame that gives the roof shape and slope, as well as a coating - a waterproofing material that provides protection against the ingress of atmospheric moisture. Roof performs the following functions:
- Cold protection. The roof of the house is the first barrier that stands between the cold of the environment and the living quarters inside. It helps to keep the house warm in the winter, and in the summer it protects them from overheating as a result of exposure to sunlight.
- Wind protection The roof should protect the structure from the penetration of cold air or wind, often causing serious heat loss.
- The logical conclusion of the architectural appearance of the house. Only a well-designed roof can harmoniously complete the architectural design of the structure, emphasize its style.
It is important to understand that the roof is not only a unitary construction, it also carries a large aesthetic, decorative potential, which makes the architectural appearance of the building complete, organic. Therefore, it is important to take seriously the design of the roof structure.
Warm or cold
The roof of the house is a natural barrier between the unfavorable environment and the inner living spaces, thanks to which they maintain the optimum temperature for humans. From the point of view of thermal insulation, there are the following types of roof arrangement:
- Cold roof. This is a traditional and more simple way of constructing the roof of a private house. Its distinguishing feature is that the roofing cake does not include a layer of thermal insulation. Instead, thermal insulation material is placed on the attic floor. This option is used if the second floor is not heated.
- Warm roof. A warm roof is a roof structure, the roofing cake of which contains one or even several layers of insulation. This option is used in the arrangement of houses with the upper floor or attic. A warm roof is more expensive than a cold one because of the larger thermal insulation area and complexity of installation.
Experienced roofing masters recommend using a simpler and cheaper option for arranging a cold roof, unless there is a direct need to construct a heated attic.
An important parameter of the roof of a private house is the slope. This term designates the angle of slope of the roof slopes in relation to its base. The slope can be in the range of 0-60 degrees, it is chosen in accordance with the climatic conditions in the area where the house is located, the roofing surface and architectural style used. The slope distinguish the following types of roofs:
- Flat. Flat roofs are called floors with a slope of 0 degrees. The flat roof construction consists of concrete floors, thermal insulation and waterproofing material.
- Low side. Roofs with a slope of up to 15 degrees are considered low-grade. Usually such are the lean-to designs, popular for arrangement of terraces, arbors, canopies or baths. They are economical due to the low consumption of roofing material.
- Medium carbon. Roofs with a slope of 15-35 degrees are medium steep. They are cheaper and easier to install than steep-steep, but they drain water and snow masses much better than constructions with a lower inclination angle of slopes.
- Steeply. Constructions with a slope of slopes of more than 35 degrees are called steep-sloping. The large angle of slope of the slopes requires the arrangement of a massive truss frame, as well as a greater consumption of roofing material, so they are more expensive.
Important! To choose the right roof slope, it is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions in the construction zone. The greater the amount of precipitation falling in winter, the greater should be the angle of slope of the slopes. And vice versa - if there is an intense wind load in the area, then it is better to reduce the roof slope in order to prevent tearing off the roof covering.
The shape of the roof has a great influence on the visual perception of the house as a whole. The main thing is that the height of the roof be proportional to the height of the building. At the same time a low-sided design with wide overhangs makes the house visually more squat. A medium roof extends the silhouette of the house, balancing its proportions. The shape of the roof is conventionally divided into the following types:
- Dvukhskatnaya. Double-roofed roof is called a simple structure consisting of two inclined slopes. The design of such a roof is quite simple, uncomplicated, but it is easy to design and build.
- Dvukhskatnaya broken. The gable roof, the slopes of which change their inclination, is called broken or mansard. By changing the angle of inclination, it is possible to more rationally use the free space in the attic, to increase the height of the attic floor.
- Hip. Hip roof is called a structure in which gables are replaced by shorter slopes, thereby reducing the wind load on the roof, and also give the original, unusual appearance.
- Tent. Tent roof is called a structure consisting of many skates connected at one point. The minimum number of skates in such a roof is 4.
Interestingly, there are more complex forms of roofing - dome, arch, arched, but they are used much less frequently due to the high complexity of installation, uneconomic cutting of roofing material.
The appearance of the house as a whole and the roof in particular strongly depends on the choice of roofing material. CThe surface texture and weight of the coating affect the roof structure, so it is important to make a well-considered choice. There are the following types of waterproofing materials:
- Metallic. For the manufacture of roofing materials use corrosion-resistant types of metals - galvanized steel, aluminum, copper. They can be a single sheet from which roofing paintings are made, or profiled sheets that have a pronounced relief. Metal roofing are considered durable, strong, but their weaknesses are considered to be noise.
- Bituminous. The second most popular roofing are various bases, impregnated with bitumen. Ruberoid, stekloizol, rubemast, ondulin, and shingles belong to this category. They are elastic, light. Their weak point is low mechanical strength.
- Ceramic. Ceramic tiles - the traditional way of arranging the roof. It has a high decorative potential, good insulating ability. True, ceramic tile weighs a lot, and is also quite expensive.
- Asbestos cement. Slate - is sheets of asbestos cement, which are used to overlap the roof. It is cheap enough, but it has a low decorative potential.