Bath - building sanitary purposes, which is very popular among the population of Russia. It has become an indispensable part of leisure and recreation, a way of life of the Russian people, so no country or even a garden house can do without it. If the site has enough space for construction, then a detached bath with a gable roof is the best option. It will be easy to maintain the optimum temperature, the building will be a reflection of the ancient traditions in architecture. This article will tell you how to build a dual-pitch roof, which preserves heat.
The gable roof of the bath is formed by connecting two planes, which are angled to each other, called slopes. This is one of the easiest for the design and installation of the roofing structures. In the frontal projection, it has the shape of an isosceles triangle, which is considered traditional for this type of buildings. The gable roof consists of the following parts:
- Rafter frame. This term designates set of the elements providing support of roofing material. It includes: mauerlat, rafters, tightening, ridge girder, stands and struts. The rafter frame is made of high-quality wood of coniferous trees. The composition and relative position of its parts is calculated in accordance with the expected load, which is influenced by the weight of the roofing material and the amount of precipitation in winter. Rafters, like a skeleton-carrying body, give shape and rigidity to the structure, protecting it from destruction. For the construction of the roof of the bath used hanging or naslonnyh rafters.
- Roofing pie. This term refers to the roofing material and waterproofing layer, which is laid on the sheathing, supported by rafters. Roofing material with a greater margin of safety is more often used as waterproofing than polyethylene films and diffuse membranes. To cover the slopes of the bath using profiled sheeting, metal tile, ondulin or slate.
- Pediments. Duplex roof has two gables of a triangular shape, which are a continuation of the end walls. Gables sewn lighter lumber or made of the same material as the facade of the building. Baths, made entirely of timber or logs, have a better ability to retain heat, but they are more expensive due to the higher consumption of lumber and the difficulties associated with the assembly of their own hands. To reduce fuel consumption to maintain temperature, the gables are insulated inside or outside, they close up the gaps and revet with decorative material.
Note! The microclimate that is installed in the bath is an aggressive environment for building materials. The difference between the internal and external temperature of the air, heat and humidity have a detrimental effect on the wood, therefore any instruction on the construction of the roof for a bath with its own hands involves the treatment with antiseptic and moisture-proof compounds. The high risk of fire explains the need to use flame retardants to protect rafters from fire.
Types of designs
Double-faced roof - the most rational and popular type of roofing construction used for the construction of baths with their own hands. She wants the building to look like a traditional tower, making it not only functional, but also aesthetic. Experienced craftsmen talk about the possibility of arranging two types of dual-slope roofs:
- Attic Attic is called a gable roof, in the space between the slopes and beams of overlap equip utility room. The peculiarity of this type is that in the construction there is a ceiling that separates the rooms of the ground floor from the under-roofing space. It serves as an additional protection against the cold and makes the bath more warm. The attic is a great place to organize storage or lounges. Projects of a bath-house in which the attic is placed beyond the perimeter of the building, forming a small shed above the entrance, are considered very popular. The minus of garret roofs is that they require more costs and are difficult to build with their own hands.
- Bescherdachnye. Crashless roofs are called, in which the roofing space is not separated from the main premises by the ceiling. The height of the ridgeless roof ridge is less than the attic, so less materials are required for building with your own hands. This option is suitable if the bath is used mainly in the summer. In winter, it is almost impossible to heat and keep warm in a beschadechnoy roof bath.
Important! If the bath is performed as an extension to a residential structure, then a shed roof is the most rational option for overlapping. It looks less presentable and has less energy efficiency, however, it costs much less and builds faster.
The combination of wooden elements that support the shape of the roof, called the truss system. It consists of trusses, each of which has the shape of an equilateral triangle, its base is equal to the width of the bath, and the legs are rafters. The triangle is the most stable geometric figure, so the roof frame can withstand considerable loads. For the construction of dual roofs use two types of frames:
- Hanging, rafters which tops abut each other, and the bottom are attached to the power plate. The only support for them are external load-bearing walls. The rafter frame of the hanging type undergoes two types of loads: for expansion and deflection. To reduce the arching effect that the rafters have on the bathhouse frame, various types of tightening are used. To eliminate the deflection mounted struts. This option is suitable for small buildings in which there is no internal bearing partition. It’s rather difficult to block a large area bath with your own hands.
- Slope rafters which, in addition to the external bearing walls, have a support in the form of internal ones. Depending on the layout, there can be 1 or even 2 main walls in the bath, which can serve as support for the truss framework. Legs are laid on them and racks supporting the rafters under the ridge or in the middle part of the foot are installed. This option is suitable for large buildings.
Note! In determining the composition of the truss frame, its own weight, the weight of attic floors and the seasonal snow load are taken into account. The thickness of the rafters is determined in accordance with the length of the slope, the step width between the legs and the type of roofing material. In order for the roof to serve longer, a small amount of strength should be left, which will prevent breakdowns in extreme weather conditions.
The construction of the roof is a technically difficult process, so when building with your own hands it is important to thoroughly follow the recommended technology. Installationные работы выполняют в сухую погоду, чтобы сохранить сухими элементы стропильного каркаса. Из инструментов потребуется болгарка, лобзик, шуруповерт, дрель, строительный степлер. Сборку выполняют в следующем порядке:
- First of all, the walls on which the Mauerlat is laid are waterproofed with ruberoid folded 2-3 times. In the master bar, the holes for the fastenings are extended. Metal fasteners or anchor bolts are used as fasteners. If the felling of the bath is made of a log or a bar, the mauerlat is replaced by the upper rims, which are reinforced with metal braces.
- Begin the assembly truss trusses. The legs are fastened together with a metal lining, adjusting the angle between them by level, nailing the tightening. First of all, they install extreme farms, nailing nails to the mauerlat. Between them, a rope is stretched over which it is easy to check the correctness of the location of the other farms. In order for the construction to maintain a vertical position before the installation of the batten, it is supported by temporary cuts.
- A strip of waterproofing material is laid over the rafters, overlapping one another, to protect the seams from moisture penetration. Fixed waterproofing with a stapler or nails. In order to create a ventilation gap between the waterproofing and the roofing material, counter-crates are fastened along the rafters.
- A crate of 50x150 mm planks is nailed to rafter legs with a pitch of 10-15 cm. If the roofing material has a large mass or does not hold the form on its own, the crate is made of moisture resistant plywood.
- On top of the sheathing, the roofing material is laid. Laying technology depends on the type of coating. Required sheets and stripes are laid taking into account the overlap of 15-20 cm. The smaller the slope of the slope, the more must be overlap.
- At last, the roof is equipped with a drain, the overhangs are sewn up with soffits, the gables are warmed and veneered.
Important! Since the bath involves the presence of a heating device, the final stage of the roof construction is the removal of the chimney. It should be located at a distance of 30-50 cm from the skate and rise 50-100 cm above it.