One of the most important structural elements of any structure is its roof. It is on the roof that the main load is to protect the structure from precipitation, ultraviolet radiation and wind, so the question of its construction should be approached with the utmost responsibility. Of course, the appearance of the roof is no less important. Recently, you can observe buildings with a variety of roofs, from the usual gable, to the very original dome. Basically this is a matter of taste, but as one of the most versatile and optimal solutions we can mention the hip roof.
Like any other roof, hip roof is based on rafters, and to be more precise, we are talking about the whole system. Just about what features the roof system of the hip roof has and what features the process of its manufacture has and will be discussed below.
In order to understand the essence of the upcoming works, it is necessary to determine what is considered to be a hip roof. The hip roof is a four-sided roof, which is based on a rafter nasal system. From the point of view of geometry, the two slopes of this roof will have a trapezoid shape (running along the building), and two slopes from the ends of the house will be triangular. Despite the fact that the building can be square, the shape of the slopes is preserved.
If we consider the device of such a truss system, then it consists of several types of elements:
- Slant rafters.
- Diagonal rafter.
- Ordinary rafters.
Additional elements like so-called Sprengel and racks can be used. In general, carpentry is simply replete with colorful terms and distinctive expressions. Thus, the importance and a kind of “caste” of this type of work is emphasized.
In most cases this is true. Especially, it concerns the theoretical side of the issue - the calculation of the angle of inclination of skates, overall planning, drawing up drawings. These works are distinguished by high demands on the quality of their performance, so it is best to entrust them to professionals. But the work on the immediate assembly can be done independently. Of course, if there is some experience and knowledge on the topic.
It should also be added that not the last place in the construction of the hip roof takes the quality of the materials used. For these purposes, the most appropriate for use are boards and bars of coniferous wood. It is easy to work with such material, since it is quite versatile and also available, considering its comparative cost. The only thing worth paying special attention to is the moisture content of the materials. The optimal rate is 20%. Also, it would not be superfluous to remind you that for work it is best to choose dry time.
Sequence of work
When the preparatory stages of work are over, you can proceed to the very process of building a truss system.
- First, you need to hold around the perimeter of the walls of the building reinforced concrete screed, which will serve as the basis for the rest of the roof. For this, you first need to collect a small formwork. Then it is placed and fixed on a certain elevation from the base of the metal mesh, over which you can pour the concrete mix and hold the screed. The thickness of the screed can be up to 10 cm, depending on the expected load, a large part of which will be provided by the roofing material.
- After the screed finally hardens (it can take from two days to a week), it is possible to lay a mauerlat on top of it. It is so called to carry the beam, which will support for the rest of the roof. As a mauerlat, you can use a wooden bar with a section of about 15–15 cm. It is fastened to the screed using special anchors.
- The next stage of work is the installation of a ridge bar. For this, a wooden bar with a cross section of 10 × 10 cm can be used. It is fixed in accordance with the calculations with the help of additional supporting bars, which, in turn, rest on the supporting beams.
- Next are installed themselves and fixed truss elements? inclined and diagonal rafters. This is how the main frame of the truss system is formed. It should be said that when fastening, each of the individual elements must be attached at least two nails. For the formation of rafters should be used edged board or timber. Sections may vary, but it is sufficient to withstand wind and snow loads. Optimum is the use of boards with a cross section of 50? 150 mm. When the angle of inclination of the roof is not planned to be too large, it will mean that the snow loads will be quite significant, and therefore additional strengthening of the truss system will be required with the aid of sprengels. So it is accepted to call horizontally located timber on which diagonal rafters will be supported through an additional timber support.
- The next step in the manufacture of the hip truss system is the installation of the batten. It can be as sparse, with a distance between elements of more than 3 cm, and solid. The type of lathing is selected on the basis of what roofing material will be used. For example, under the shingles need only make a continuous crate, the distance between the elements of which under the slate roof can reach a meter.
As a conclusion to the above, you can add a few rules, the observance of which will allow you to perform work as accurately as possible.
- Particular attention should be paid to mounting diagonal rafters.
- When fixing the rafters to the mauerlat, you need to ensure that this place does not fall into the place of attachment of the mauerlat to the wall.
- Additional fixing of the truss system elements can be accomplished with the help of additional races embedded in the supporting beams.
- All theoretical aspects of the work: the scheme of the truss system and the necessary calculations must be performed by professional builders.
On this, a brief description of the manufacturing process of the truss system of the hip roof can be considered complete.
This video shows how to ensure the stiffness of the hip roof: