There are many flooring options. To date, the most popular laminate. It is designed in such a way that it is capable of imitating for certain natural building materials, such as natural stone, cork, and wood. Technology allows you to give the front surface of the laminate any pattern. Laminate floors are installed in administrative and residential premises. So, how to put a laminate with your own hands? First, let's talk a little about the properties of this material.
This unique material has become popular due to its qualities:
- ability to not accumulate dust (antistatic),
- high resistance to ultraviolet rays,
- erasure resistance,
- resistance to continuous bending and compression loads and impact resistance,
- good thermal durability (it will not catch fire from a non-extinguished cigarette),
- perfect immunity to household chemical solutions,
- possibility of laying directly on floor heating systems,
- easy installation
- ease of assembly.
Laminate is of various grades and types, but its structure remains unchanged. It always consists of four layers:
- Protective face layer.
- Layer with a decorative pattern.
- The basis made of wood-fiber or wood-shaving plate.
- The layer is stabilizing, able to withstand deformation loads.
The technology of its production lies in the fact that all the composite layers are pressed under high pressure. This is a completely new finishing material. The outer layer provides heat resistance, light resistance and wear resistance. For the manufacture of this layer are used melamine resin with all sorts of additives and additives. As a rule, it is corundum, not inferior in strength to diamond. Other manufacturers to strengthen the layer used symmetrical-oriented particles of aluminum dioxide.
A layer of various polymers or kraft paper can be applied between the base and the decorative layer. This addition contributes to the strengthening of the hardness of the surface layer of the base and increases the rigidity of the end part.
The decorative layer is made of paper, which is impregnated with melamine resin. On it is superimposed a drawing capable of imitating the texture of natural materials. This layer resists the harmful effects of sunlight. The main layer is fiberboard. Such paper has a high density, and the higher the density, the more reliable the technical characteristics of the laminate. These characteristics include: impact resistance, moisture resistance, resistance to high loads.
The anti-deforming lower layer adapts the laminated coating to changes in temperature and humidity. In order to laminate to cover the floor in the kitchen, you need a special kind of it - moisture-proof laminate. Its outer surface contains wax, which makes the layer watertight. When laying such material, it is imperative that you use a sealant to process all seams. For kitchen experts recommend using laminate thirty-second and thirty-third classes. This laminate, among other things, also has a high degree of impact resistance.
Laying laminate do it yourself
Having learned enough about the remarkable properties of the laminate, the owner decides to use it as a floor covering. The fact that the laminate can fit well not only in the new building, it is indispensable for the repair of the existing premises.
Water and moisture are the main enemies of the laminate. This should be considered first when choosing a material. High-quality laminated coating can withstand the presence of water on the surface during the day, but cheap types of laminate are quickly deformed when in contact with water.
Note! Laminate is better not to use for installation of floors in the bathroom and in unheated rooms.
The base of the laminate should be firm and level. And further. After buying a laminate store it must be in a horizontal position, and do not unpack before starting work. It is also not recommended to start installation right away. It is necessary that the material adapts to the new conditions. To do this, he must lie down for three days in the room where he will be laid. If you plan to install a heated floor, it is necessary to turn on the heating for one to two weeks before laying. Three days before the floor heating is turned off.
Laminate must be purchased with the necessary margin, because in the process of laying boards are sawing and fitting. So, the desired type of flooring purchased in the required quantity. Now you need to decide on auxiliary equipment.
Instruments и дополнительные материалы
In order to carry out the installation properly, the following tools and auxiliary materials should be at hand:
- Hacksaw or jigsaw, the latter is preferable, since cutting a laminate is quite a laborious process.
- Measuring tape or tape measure.
- 25 cm long wooden plank.
- Pad в виде рулона полиэтиленовой пленки.
Preparation of the base
Before starting work on laminate flooring it is necessary to level the floors. If the base is parquet, then it is necessary to eliminate all defects, such as creaks and protruding sections. If the floor is concrete, you need to thoroughly clean it from crumbs, and then level with the use of special building mixtures. Wood floors should be checked for strength and immobility. If necessary, fasten them and align. Floor drops should be no more than two to three millimeters per linear meter.
If the basis for laying laminate flooring is an old wooden floor, the simplest is its scuffing. But the most reliable way is leveling with plywood or chipboard. Plywood or chipboard can be laid directly on the rough surface of the floor or using a dry screed. In the first method, pre-alignment is carried out using liners of different thickness. Then fasten the plywood with glue or nails. And from claydite dry screed is performed. Expanded clay layer will not only make the foundation perfectly flat, but also enhances heat preservation and sound insulation.
When mounted on a concrete floor, it must be leveled using a thin cement screed, which is made from a solution of sand and cement. If possible, then apply a special filler floor.
Note! If the parquet is old, then nothing will help to make it monolithic. Before laying laminate parquet boards better to completely remove.
If the parquet flooring is new, then it should be well investigated. If necessary, replace individual parquet flooring, and be sure to sand the entire surface.
Pad укладывается на подготовленный пол. Для чего она нужна? Pad служит для амортизации, гидравлической, тепловой и звуковой изоляции. Также подложка способна сгладить небольшие неровности. Ее рекомендуется укладывать не сразу на весь пол, а непосредственно перед монтируемым участком. Лишние части обрезаются так, чтобы их края не выглядывали на поверхность.
How is laminate being laid
With the seeming simplicity at first glance, laying laminate is not easy and not quite fast. The details of the laminate are interconnected in the following way: you need to insert the comb of one board correctly into the existing groove of the next board. By means of a hammer, the details of the laminate are adjusted to each other. Care must be taken not to damage the laminated surface.
Note! You can start laying from any side of the room, but it is necessary to take into account the fact that it is recommended to lay the boards perpendicular to the window opening. So the joints between the sheets of laminate are less noticeable.
It is advisable to start laying lamellae from the left far corner of the room. Having chosen a small area, it is first covered with a substrate. The process begins with laying out the strip along the wall. Boards are customized with a hammer end to end. This strip is laid along the entire wall, and the end is fitted with a jigsaw. After installing the wedge, the strip tightly pressed against the wall.
The second band is laid out next. At the same time, it is necessary to cut off thirty centimeters from the first board so that the horizontal joints of the first strip do not coincide with the joints of the second. Lay the third lane with a new board. Thus, the installation of flooring in a staggered manner. This option of laying looks elegant and spectacular. This design allows you to evenly distribute the load on the external surface.
So, the second band is ready. It is taken entirely and its crest is inserted into the groove of the strip lying against the wall. Such a joining procedure is performed when the second band is located relative to the first one at an angle of 30 ?. Connecting the ridges and grooves, you should firmly press the strip and carefully place the second strip horizontally, pressing it slightly from above. When a gap is detected, it must be removed with a hammer and a previously prepared bar.
Thus, the rest of the panel. Do not forget about the gap, which must be between the laminate and the wall. In order to carry out the installation at the point of passage of the pipes (heating, water supply), you need to cut the corresponding holes in the laminate with an electric jigsaw. After the floor of the room is fully laid, special plastic baseboards must be reinforced along the wall. They will reliably strengthen the entire structure. Similarly, laminate flooring is produced in other rooms.
Finally, the laminate bed, the floor is ready. But so much time and effort invested in its installation, that now it should be a special care. After all, it is not wood, parquet or linoleum. The easiest cleaning option is a rag and a bucket of water. The nuance of this cleaning is that the cloth or mop should be wetted slightly so that they are not too wet. If the water is spilled, it should be carefully collected and wiped dry with a cloth. The main thing is to do everything quickly.
Note! If the laminate is of low quality, then after a while it can be deformed by exposure to water.
Wet cleaning is good, but laminate manufacturers have taken care to create special detergents to care for this floor. These funds, of course, are not recommended to be used daily, but only once a week. It all depends on the patency of the room where the laminate, and the degree of contamination. Many housewives believe that any detergent can be used to care for laminate floors. This is not true. It is strictly forbidden to use substances containing abrasive particles to care for the coating. From their use, the external surface is scratched and loses its original luster. Hard sponges are not suitable for this purpose.
At hit on a surface of a laminate of a paint or glue solutions on the basis of acetone or ethyl alcohol will come to the rescue. Apply the solution to the stain and leave for five minutes, then wipe with a dry cloth. A dry piece of nylon fabric removes traces of colored pencils or bicycle rubber from the surface of the laminate.
Over time, the surface of the laminate slightly darkens. To restore the old look and to bring in the gloss, special means are used, which are rubbed on the external surface.
Price of laminate
Such flooring can be purchased at the online store. It is profitable and convenient. When buying laminate in the online store, you can win both in time and in price. In any case, the cost is directly related to quality. Packaging laminate can be bought for 200-500 rubles.
In this video some subtleties of laminate laying are shown:
This video describes how to level curved floors in an old house with plywood: