The world does not stand still, and annually the emerging new technologies penetrate into all areas of construction. Not left without attention and work on the construction of the foundation. In this article we will talk about the fixed formwork, which has recently become popular with developers, simplifying their lives.
The first installation stage of construction work is to prepare the foundation for the future building. In most cases, such foundations are made of wooden formwork, which is dismantled after they are completely dried.
However, there are currently ways to use fixed elements. Read more about what they are and how to make the foundation with their own hands with their help, read below.
The first tests of a similar technique began at the beginning of this century (in 2000–2001). At the same time, the main stages of laying the foundation were no different, the differences were only in the assembly and installation of formwork. Let us recall the main stages of the construction of the tape base:
|Project||At this stage, all calculations are carried out, and two factors influence the preparation of the foundation: · the total weight of the building; |
· The bearing capacity of the soil beneath it.
Based on this information, the required grade of concrete and the total area of the base is selected.
|Preparation area||It is necessary to clear the future construction site of all the excess, as well as to apply the layout of the proposed base. Such work is quite complex, but the correctness of its performance depends on the geometry of the constructed building.|
|Excavation||First, a trench is pulled out under a strip foundation, after which a cushion of sand and rubble is placed on its bottom. Then it is compacted, and the formwork is fastened on top of it.|
Advantages and disadvantages of the design
And it is just from this place that significant differences begin in the installation of the foundation with removable and non-removable formwork:
- The composition of the first includes a large number of elements and for its correct creation, as well as subsequent installation, certain knowledge and skills are required.
- In the second case, any person can cope with the work. It does not require further dismantling, and also performs another role - insulating. As you know, when installing classic formwork, heat-insulating materials are placed separately.
- If you decide to make a permanent formwork, then this gives two advantages at once:
- good limiter for concrete mix;
- excellent thermal insulation layer.
- The use eliminates the installation of an additional reinforcing belt. For its production will have to buy metal fittings and make them a frame. The intersections are welded or simply tied with a special wire. Agree that these are additional expenses on construction.
- Another significant advantage of permanent formwork is its water repellency. As a result, you can not worry about the immutability of the proportions of the concrete mix.
- Most types of fixed formwork perfectly resist ignition, and also do not lose stability in a wet environment.
Of the design flaws, there is only one - the high price of the product. However, there is a nuance here, do not forget that when using it, you can save on the installation of the insulating layer.
Types of fixed formwork
Currently, there are several varieties of this material. Let's take a closer look at each of them:
|Polystyrene foam||It is used most often. Although the material is fairly light, it does not affect its strength properties. It has good thermal insulation properties and at the same time allows concrete to “breathe”, i.e. allows air to circulate freely.|
|A mixture of cement and wood chips||The design has a good sound insulation. In order to keep heat in such plates, air bubbles are located between the wooden chips. To increase the service life of wood, as well as to increase its water-repellent and fireproof properties, it is subjected to special treatment.|
|Fibrolitovaya||It can be considered a product of the chemical industry. Such blocks consist of wood shavings mixed with magnesite. If instead of the latter to use Portland cement, the construction will exactly resemble the previous one. Such formwork has good fire protection properties, and also does not allow steam, and at the same time retains heat indoors.|
In addition to the foundation, this type of formwork can be used during the installation of walls. In this case, there are cases when it is used as their basis.
- Walls should be mounted on a pre-hydro-insulated foundation.
- To fix them, use metal reinforcement, which must first be installed and brought out of the base.. In addition, with its help, new rows of reinforcing mesh will be formed, which need to be overlapped.
Tip: before proceeding to the installation of the first row of permanent formwork, you should decide where the doorways will be located, as well as the places to which the inner walls will abut.
- After that, you can continue to increase the reinforcing mesh and the application of permanent formwork. By and large, this process is reminiscent of the creation of a sandwich, where the concrete casting, supported by a metal frame, will be protected on both sides by thermal insulating material.
Tip: if you need to then dismantle the frozen concrete mass, this is done by cutting the reinforced concrete with diamond circles.
Instruction during the pouring of concrete into fixed formwork does not differ from the basic technologies used during the formation of conventional casting from concrete:
- it is recommended to fill in one stage, if this is not possible, you should use layers of concrete;
- Be sure to compact the concrete with a deep vibrator (best option) or a tamper to remove air bubbles from the mass. If they are not available, you can simply take any sharp object and poke through the entire volume of the solution.
Tip: it is very important during such processes not to forget to leave space for the conduct of engineering communications.
Otherwise, only diamond drilling of holes in concrete with special crowns will help you. In addition, do not disregard the formation of structural elements of the room.
The acquisition of really high-quality blocks of fixed formwork, as well as the competent process of preparing fasteners and tools in combination with reliable fastening of the entire structure, can have a significant effect.
At the same time, the house will be reliably heat and soundproofed, and the process itself will not seem so complicated. The video in this article will help you find additional information on this topic.