Recently, the construction of country houses from timber has been very popular. This trend is easily explained by the reasonable price of this material, high speed of construction, as well as a number of advantages of timber over other building materials.
Next, we will gradually consider the technology of the construction of such houses.
Choice of timber
Before you start building a house, consider the features of this material so that you can choose a quality timber. And so, this material is made by trimming the logs from four sides, with the result that a smooth, smooth surface is obtained.
There are two main types of timber - solid and profiled. Each of them has its pros and cons.
Profiled timber имеет профиль, который может быть с венцовыми пазами или шипами. Эти соединения выполняются по всей длине материала, после чего поверхность шлифуется. Готовый брус остается только собрать на стройплощадке, словно конструктор.
The construction of a country house from a bar of profiled type has the following advantages:
- Due to the exact shape of the material, the assembly is simplified and its speed increases.
- Such houses are resistant to deformations.
- Attractive appearance and good thermal characteristics of the walls.
- Do not appear foci of rotting, which are formed as a result of penetration into the cracks of rain water.
- After the shrinkage of the house from the profiled bar is not required caulk.
- Good protection from airflow.
There are many advantages, however, there are disadvantages:
- To enhance the bioprotective and flame retardant properties of this material, it must be impregnated with special means.
- As a result of the natural moisture content of the profiled bar, cracks are formed during the warm season during drying. Therefore, it is desirable to purchase a timber that has been chamber-dried.
- As a result of the small thickness of the walls of the profiled beam, they need to be warmed, if the country house will be used in the winter.
- After construction, it will be impossible to perform redevelopment works.
- The price of such material is higher than the regular flat bar.
Of course, an even timber does not look as beautiful as a profiled one, but for that it has some advantages:
- For the construction does not need to use special equipment.
- You can choose the optimal thickness.
- Low price.
Of the minuses are the following:
- Need extra finishing costs.
- It is necessary to carefully choose the timber so that it corresponds to GOST, otherwise the walls will be uneven.
- Mezhventsovye seams are blown heavily, so heat is worse stored worse.
- After shrinkage and shrinkage, the timber cracks strongly.
Glued laminated timber
Separately, it should be said about laminated veneer lumber, which is made by gluing several boards.
Country house of laminated veneer lumber has a number of advantages:
- Such a timber is always carefully dried.
- This material practically does not shrink (shrinkage is no more than 2-3 percent).
- The length of the material can be up to 12 m. This significantly expands the possibilities of designing wooden houses from glued timber.
- For a bar I use a selective board.
- Does not require antiseptic treatment.
Along with the advantages, country houses from laminated timber have some disadvantages, as is the case with other materials:
- The house is less environmentally friendly and natural than the structure, made of natural array.
- It is not known how glue joints will behave after 30-50 years, as there is no experience in the world yet.
- Worse air conditioning is worse, since glue interferes with this.
- The main disadvantage is the high cost of the material.
Considering all the pros and cons of various types of this material, the most justified is the construction of country houses from laminated veneer lumber. However, if you want to save money, then you should choose a regular timber, section 150x150 cm. At the same time, you should pay attention so that it does not have cracks, there are not many knots on it, and there is a healthy color.
Once with the material you decide, you need to make a plan of a country house from a bar. When designing log houses or cottages, you need to be extremely careful and accurately perform all calculations. At this stage, the amount of material needed is calculated.
You can draw a project yourself, use the services of special companies or find a finished project. Of course, if you do not have experience of similar work, then it is better to contact the specialists who will execute the project in accordance with all the geometric rules, as well as take into account other important factors.
In the process of designing, you can also think in advance of the interior design of the house, the location of the stairs, furniture, etc. As an example, you can see the existing interiors of country houses from a bar.
Tip! If you have computer titles, it is much easier to create a project in specialized programs that are not difficult to master.
Once all the calculations are completed, you can proceed to construction. First of all, it is necessary to prepare the construction site, remove all the garbage, if there is one, as well as other obstacles. Access must also be provided so that construction material can be brought up.
Any home begins with a foundation, including a house of timber. The structure has sufficient weight, as a result, it requires a device of a reliable and durable base.
Tip! An excellent option is the foundation on screw piles. It is quickly built, reliable enough, and at the same time requires less financial costs.
If the house is small, then it can be erected on a slab foundation. However, the strip foundation is the most popular, since its construction does not require special equipment and, moreover, it is quite reliable. Therefore, below we consider the technology of its manufacture.
The instruction of performance of works looks as follows:
- First of all, it is necessary to make markup on the perimeter of the future structure. Then you need to mark the location of the internal walls.
- According to the marking, trenches are pulled out 10 cm wide exceeding the width of the walls.
- If there is a basement, then it is necessary to equip the pit.
- Then formwork, reinforcement and trenches are concreted.
Tip! At the construction site, you can make a solution in a concrete mixer, and pour it into trenches with a special pump. The main thing is to prevent the formation of air bubbles until the foundation solidifies.
After the foundation is laid, you can start building a log house with your own hands. The most important thing is to assemble the first row of bars correctly, after which the rims are laid in the same way. The bars interconnect with the dowel, i.e. pin that prevents them from shifting.
Pins can be both wooden and metal, which are more reliable. Installation of dowels for timber is carried out on the principle of brickwork - through one, through several rows. To install the pins it is necessary to drill holes in the bars of the appropriate diameter.
Note! Between each row of bars must be laid seal. As a rule, tow is used for these purposes, and you can also apply a flaxjut canvas.
The junction of the outer walls must be connected to the “warm corner” lock. In this case, a thorn is made in one bar and a groove in the other. The location of the spikes and grooves must be alternated. After the frame is erected, it is necessary to cut the partition walls, as well as cut the windows and doors.
All elements of the roof must be installed in accordance with the project. The first is laid ceiling lags. After that, the truss system is assembled. This construction is the skeleton of the future roof, so it must be well strengthened.
Rafters are mounted in steps of one meter. Then fit the fronts that are most often made of timber or siding. After that, lathing is performed with a pitch of about 400 mm.
When the frame is fully completed, you can begin to cover the roof.
The material can be used:
- Metal tile;
- Ondulin and other roofing materials.
Depending on the type of coating is carried out and its installation.
Build a country house from a bar, as you can see, is not so difficult. The main thing - to comply with the technology at all stages of construction. The result of this work will be a reliable and durable country house, built from environmentally friendly materials.
You can get more information on this topic from the video in this article.