Concrete waterproofing is an extremely important aspect in relation to the construction of buildings, structures and structures. The need for such measures is triggered by a special porous structure of most concretes and, as a result, insufficient resistance to excessive moisture.
If the waterproofing of concrete structures is not done in a timely manner, it is possible to moisten the surfaces and the subsequent appearance of mold and various fungal infections. However, mold on the walls - this is not the most unpleasant consequences, since the prolonged exposure to excessive moisture contributes to the gradual destruction of building objects.
This is due to the fact that water, penetrating into the micropores of the building material and in the case of temperature differences, periodically narrows and expands. These processes adversely affect the integrity of the concrete structure, which causes the destruction.
The need to combat excessive moisture
The abundance of melt and groundwater pose a serious danger to various buildings. As the experience of long-term operation of country houses shows, the presence of an effective drainage system and a blind area around the perimeter of the walls does not guarantee the durability of the construction site. In this case, a complex, well-implemented, waterproofing of the concrete floor, foundation and walls is necessary.
But the negative impact of moisture on concrete is a significant danger not only for low-rise residential buildings. That is why waterproofing of reinforced concrete structures is performed during the construction and operation of public and industrial facilities.
So, how to increase the degree of hydrophobicity of the most popular building materials today and how to ensure their durability?
Features of waterproofing arrangement
All work on the waterproofing of concrete, in accordance with the method of carrying out, can be divided into two main types:
- activities implemented during the construction of the object;
- activities implemented during the operation of the facility.
It is impossible to say reliably which of these methods is more effective, since the best result is achieved with their complex application.
Over the long history of the use of concrete and structures based on it, many methods have been developed to protect against the negative effects of excessive moisture.
Currently, effective waterproofing of concrete rings and other concrete products is performed using the following materials:
- sheet and roll and coatings based on PVC membranes or geosynthetics;
- liquid compositions for coating application (liquid rubber, bitumen mastic, etc.);
- sheet metal;
- mineral-based astringent formulations;
- bentonite clay based compounds;
- formulations of penetrating action;
- waterproofing concrete (used for surface treatment of concrete products).
Important: Properly implemented hydrophobization of concrete foundations, floors and other structures located in the “risk zone” allows us to extend the life of basements of walls and the building as a whole.
On the other hand, improperly performed waterproofing measures cannot guarantee sufficient protection of concrete structures, and therefore, sooner or later, additional work will be required to improve the quality of waterproofing, which will probably result in material costs.
Let us consider in more detail how waterproofing of the joints of concrete slabs and other surfaces is carried out using the previously listed materials.
Vertical and horizontal roll insulation
In accordance with the purpose of the object or structure, the methods of carrying out the hydrophobization can be horizontal or vertical.
Horizontal waterproofing of aerated concrete blocks and more dense materials is carried out by means of roll coatings in the areas adjacent to the walls of the building and the basement to the foundation. During the event, up to 3 layers of roll insulation are laid, thereby achieving optimum resistance of surfaces to moisture.
Vertical waterproofing is carried out both on the inside and on the outside of the foundation. As a rule, external protection prevents penetration of external groundwater or melt water to concrete structures. Inner insulation, on the contrary, prevents the outflow of fluid from the room.
Vertical waterproofing: the main varieties
Vertical waterproofing, depending on the location and type of object is divided into several varieties:
- Painting waterproofing of concrete structures prevents the negative impact of soil water and capillary moisture.
Advantageously, this type of protective treatment is realized by means of polymer or bitumen mastics and cement-polymer solutions.
As an optimal solution, waterproofing concrete has proven itself. This is a special construction mixture, made on the basis of high-quality Portland cement, pozzolanic additives and dispersed fibers. In accordance with the technological requirements, such materials are applied in two layers, between which a layer of fiberglass or fiberglass is laid.
- Reserving waterproofing is used mainly in the construction of monolithic foundations of large objects. In this case, apply a mixture of high-quality Portland cement and water-soluble aggregates. In the dried form, this shell is a durable waterproof coating.
- Membrane insulation is used to prevent the penetration of moisture into the joints between the plates and other gaps.. This technology is used in the case of waterproofing cracks in concrete.
As a protective material used elastic rubber or polyurethane compounds, hardening when interacting with air. The composition after a short time after application hardens and forms a solid membrane, adapted to sharp temperature fluctuations in the range from -40 ° C to + 100 ° C.
- Penetrating waterproofing is the most common and popular solution..
In many ways, this popularity is due to the fact that the price of the materials used is affordable. In addition, the processing of protected surfaces is simple and can be done by hand with the use of simple tools.
For the protective treatment, special primers and deep penetration impregnations are used. These compounds penetrate the porous structure of concrete, filling micropores, voids and gaps. For a short time, the impregnating composition crystallizes, hardens and thereby strengthens the surface, giving it additional water-repellent properties.
Important: This type of waterproofing is not only available because of the acceptable cost and ease of implementation, but also universal. Impregnation, if necessary, can be applied to both vertical and horizontal and diagonal surfaces.
- Pasting waterproofing is carried out using rolled materials. Materials are pasted with stripes on a layer of liquid bitumen mastic.
Horizontal insulation: ways to implement
Waterproofing of horizontal surfaces is carried out in two ways:
- through the use of roll materials applied to a previously prepared substrate;
- by applying impregnating compositions and special injections in the cracks and interplate joints.
Protection of concrete from excessive moisture by means of rolled materials is carried out by floating or pasting method. Foundation processing using this technology is carried out at the construction stage, but before the walls are erected.
There are no strict requirements for the impregnation and injection insulation, and they can be applied both at the construction stage and during the operation of the facility.
So, you got a general idea of how to conduct a waterproofing of concrete structures and structures. From the above range of technologies, you will be able to choose those methods that will correspond to the characteristics of the construction site and the size of the budget allocated for this work.
Any questions? You can find the answers to them by watching the video in this article.