The term “concrete wall stone” refers to all concrete products intended for the construction of external walls or internal partitions. Depending on the purpose and features of the production, the dimensions of the products may vary, if this does not affect the quality and reliability. In this article we will look at what requirements the products must meet, and how to make them yourself.
Regulatory documentation governing the quality of units
All concrete products with the addition of various fillers should be made according to GOST. This ensures that the building material complies with all the basic requirements of safety and durability, if you decide to purchase slag stones in the distribution network, you should definitely ask about the presence of a document certifying the quality of the goods.
All standards relating to the production of the products we are examining are set out in GOST 6133-99 "Concrete Wall Wall Stones", which were put into effect on January 1, 2002. In this document, you can find all the information of interest: from production methods, dimensions of elements and components used to regulated strength indicators, which each unit must comply with.
When choosing one or another option, you can use the table in which the permissible deviations from symmetry and dimension are indicated. Any discrepancy indicates a low quality of products or lack of proper control in production.
|Regulated indicator||Allowable value in millimeters|
|Width and block length||Not more than +/- 3 mm|
|Product height||Not more than +/- 4 mm|
|Indicator of the thickness of the walls and partitions between voids||Not more than +/- 3 mm|
|Indicator of the deviation of the faces from the flatness and edges from the axis||No more than 3 mm|
|Indicator deviation of the end and side faces from the perpendicular||No more than 2 мм|
In addition, there are still a number of requirements for appearance, which are also sure to know.
|Considered indicator||Allowable value in millimeters|
|Sinks on the surface||Their size should not exceed 4 mm.|
|The number of dullness and broken in the corners (no larger than 20 mm)||No more than 2|
|Nodules or depressions, if any||Height or depth should not exceed 2 mm|
|The depth of the chips on the edges||Should not exceed 5 mm|
Note! There is one more important point that is not indicated in the table - in the presence of fatty and other spots, their size should not exceed 10 mm.
There are many more standards: from insulating properties to strength indicators. It is unlikely that it will be possible to check these figures without special equipment, but with a certificate confirming that the products comply with the standards, and a neat appearance, you can make the right choice.
Naturally, GOST 6133 99 stone wall is required for all industries. In case of independent production, deviations may be present, but still it is better to be guided by the recommendations of the regulatory act, only this can guarantee the strength and durability of the finished products.
Features self-made wall stone
As noted above, the blocks can be made independently, especially since this type of product does not require mandatory certification in accordance with the Decree of the State Standard of the Russian Federation No. 86 dated 10/08/2001, the Gosstroy of the Russian Federation No. 128 dated 12/24/2001, and the Governmental Decree No. 1013 dated 13.08 .1997.
That is, you can easily make a wall stone and use it at your own discretion, and the construction supervision authorities will not make any claims.
The composition and consistency of the solution for the manufacture of blocks
First of all, you need to stock up on the required amount of filler.
The following options are best:
- Slag is an ideal solution, because the material is very light, but at the same time durable and has high thermal insulation properties.
- Wood ash and coal burning waste, this option is used less frequently, since collecting a large amount of good quality filler is quite difficult.
- Elimination of rubble, as well as various types of stone, including granite. This filler allows you to get very strong and durable blocks, but the insulation performance will be much lower than when using slag.
- Crushed stone for concrete can also be used as a full-fledged filler, it allows to achieve high strength with low thermal insulation qualities.
- Brick fights or brick chips are perfect for making blocks, so you can give this material a second life.
- Expanded perlite, which is used both in gardening and in construction, is an excellent option for creating lightweight blocks with good thermal insulation properties.
- The sand-gravel mix can also be used as a filler, and such blocks will be quite heavy with low heat retention properties. This option is suitable for the construction of outbuildings or partitions inside the premises.
- Another very good option is expanded clay. This low-cost component can be purchased at any hardware store, low weight and excellent thermal insulation qualities are the main advantages of the material.
Naturally, in addition to the filler will need other components:
- Cement, it is best to use high-quality options brand M500. However, it should be fresh, without lumps, as this indicates either a long shelf life, or that the cement has absorbed a lot of moisture, which is very undesirable.
- Gravel, you will need a fraction of 5 to 15 millimeters. Sometimes it is not easy to find quality gravel, but this component is very important, so it’s better to take care of its acquisition.
- Coarse sandThe ideal option is river sand, its fraction is ideal for making high-quality concrete blocks.
If all components are assembled, you can proceed to the preparation of the solution. It is made in the following proportions: 1.5 parts of cement, 2 parts of gravel, 2 parts of coarse sand, 7 parts of slag, expanded clay or any other filler, as well as 2 parts of water.
It should be understood that the amount of water is a very conditional indicator, it needs to be added exactly as much as is needed for optimal consistency. Any violations: both too liquid and too thick solution - worsen the quality of the blocks and complicate the work process.
Tip! There is one simple way to check the consistency of the solution: after compression, a lump should form in the hand, which crumbles when dropped onto the ground. It is from this composition that you need to make blocks.
It is better to use one more component for preparation: the plasticizer, thanks to it, the solution will become more plastic, no cracks will form when dried, and subsequently the product will be more resistant to moisture. The amount of plasticizer should be small, the instructions on the package will prompt the correct proportions.
The working process
It is worth noting immediately that in order to achieve the best result you will need a vibrating table. You can buy it, you can make it yourself (there are enough drawings and schemes on the Internet), or you can rent it (if such service is provided in your area). With the help of this device products are compacted, air is removed from them, thereby increasing strength.
Another important part is the form for the blocks. They can also be made independently. And you can buy ready-made. The main thing is that they provide good geometry of finished products and are easy to use.
Tip! The quality of the form should not be saved - the mass of the solution and vibration can deform weak structures, and the finished products will be curved and curved.
If you do the work yourself, you need to follow a few simple recommendations:
- The finished solution is applied to the form with a small slide, after which the vibrator must be turned on for 4-5 seconds. If the composition is not enough, you need to add more, after which the clamp is re-inserted, and the concrete product is compacted by vibration.
- Compaction should be carried out until the clamp presses on the restrictive elements, after which the vibrator should work for another 5-7 seconds.
- It is necessary to remember one important rule - the form is removed when the vibrator is working, otherwise the unit may turn out with flaws.
- After sealing the unit is carefully removed, you need to knock over and remove the form. That is why consistency is important, because too much liquid will cause the block to swell and too dry to cause cracks.
Another very important stage on which the final result directly depends.
This stage has the following features:
- A fresh block is laid out on a tape, board or other dry and flat surface. At the same time the product should not be exposed to direct sunlight, drying should take place either indoors or under a canopy. The optimum temperature is 20 degrees, significant deviations can affect the setting time and, consequently, the final strength.
Important note! Many experts advise to ensure the best conditions for setting concrete to cover the products with plastic wrap, this will prevent moisture loss from the surface, due to which cracks often occur.
- A day later, the blocks can be moved and folded in several rows for further drying. They should lie at rest for at least 7-10 days, after which the strength is sufficient for transportation and storage.
- The set of maximum properties ends after 4 weeks, it is then that you can use concrete wall stone for construction.
Advantages of products of this group
If, after reading the article, you decide that you can do this work, then you can safely begin work, especially since, apart from the simplicity of the process and cheapness, the blocks have a number of advantages:
- High speed construction of buildings and durability of structures erected.
- Good thermal insulation properties allow you to apply the material and when working in a residential area.
- High sound-proof qualities allow to do without additional works on noise reduction.
- You can be sure of the reliability of each unit, as you made it yourself and used high-quality components, which eliminates harm to health.
- If you wish, you can sell the blocks, so a small hobby can begin to bring a noticeable income.
If you are making a foundation, do not forget that foundation safety is necessary for the preservation of structures. Otherwise, you will need either diamond drilling holes in concrete, or cutting reinforced concrete with diamond circles, and this is quite time-consuming and expensive work.
Concrete blocks - an excellent and inexpensive solution for buildings of various purposes. You can buy them in finished form, and you can make them yourself (then the price will be much lower). If you still have questions - watch the video in this article.