There should be another layer between the flooring and the concrete floor. This is the so-called screed. It can have different proportions of concrete for floor screed, the correctness of which will largely depend on the quality of the surface.
This and other issues will be discussed below.
Types of floor screeds
There are a number of varieties of floor screeds.
I briefly describe them:
- concrete - is the most common option for such coverage. Its basis is cement brand M-400 or M-500. Sand and crushed stone are mixed with it. It should be noted that the type of concrete used in this case for floor screed is M-150 or M-200. The formed surface has a gray color or its shade;
- anhydride - in it as the main component is anhydride. This is the name of the composition obtained by burning natural gypsum. This screed forms a durable and smooth cream colored surface;
- mosaic (terratsio) - the so-called tie, performed on a cement or concrete surface. The main components of this composition is Portland cement, stone crumb, as well as coloring pigments. Its use allows you to create a surface with an unusual pattern;
- пеноconcrete - possesses good heat and sound insulation properties. Screed floor foam can be created on various types of base without prior preparation. The coating obtained is gray;
- magnesit (xylolite) - includes magnesite (xylolite) cement, dye, sand, water and sawdust. Forms a smooth coating of grayish color, on top of which are visible wooden particles;
- cast asphalt - can also act as a screed. It consists of bitumen, sand and fine crushed stone. This mixture is heated to a temperature of 250 degrees, after which it is laid and compacted with a manual roller. The hand-made coating has a rough surface and a dark color;
- synthetic resin screed - it is created by laying a self-leveling floor on a previously created concrete screed. In the applied mixture, epoxy as well as polyurethane resins act as main components. The result is a very smooth surface, which can be of almost any color.
Concrete screed parameters
The calculation of the parameters of the composition of the future coverage will be carried out on the example of a concrete screed, since it is the most common, and its price is optimal. Let's start by determining the correct proportions of its components.
The ratio of cement and sand and rubble for screeds
To create a concrete coating had sufficient strength, it is necessary that its main elements are in a certain ratio with each other. The correct combinations are shown in the table below.
Tip! If you are working in an apartment or in a private house, it is best to use concrete brand M200. It is quite strong and durable.
Consider the calculation of concrete on the floor screed on a specific example. For example, do we need to make such coverage in a room of 35m? and at the same time its thickness should be 5 cm.
The order of calculation will be as follows. First, we determine the total volume of the solution - for this you need to multiply the layer thickness by the area of the room. In our case, we have: 0.05m * 35m? = 1.75 m ?.
Then we calculate the volumes of sand, cement and rubble - we take as a basis their rounded proportion, equal to 1: 3: 5.
- the volume of sand will be: 1.75 m? * (3/9) = 0.57 m ?;
- crushed stone volume: 1.75 m? * (5/9) = 0.95 m ?;
- knowing the first two parameters, we can easily calculate the third component - cement: 1.75 m? -0.57 m? -0.95 m? = 0.23m?
The next step, which our instruction provides, is a transition from volume to mass:
- 10 liters of sand weigh from 14 to 16 kilograms, therefore, 1m? = 1400kg-1600kg;
- 10 liters of rubble range from 15 to 17 kilograms, 1m? = 1500kg-1700kg;
- 10 liters of cement are 13 -14 kilograms, 1m? = 1300kg-1400kg.
Based on the above parameters, we have the following:
- is the mass of cement 0.23 m? * 1300 (1400) = 299 (322) kilograms;
- is the mass of sand 0.57 m? * 1400 (1600) = 798 (912) kilogram;
- mass of rubble - 0.95 m? * 1500 (1700) = 1425 (1615) kilogram.
The calculations presented here are approximate, but nevertheless, it helps to find out the approximate amount of consumables. Information about other grades of concrete you will inform the table below.
Tip! In the process of preparing a concrete solution, keep in mind that the mixture is able to somewhat decrease in volume. As a result of 1m? dry material goes 0,59-0,71m? ready mix. Therefore, you need to purchase all components with a margin.
In future work, pay special attention to ensuring evenness of coverage and preventing the appearance of defects on it. To remove them after the mortar has hardened, it will be necessary to cut the reinforced concrete with diamond circles.
This is when it comes to bumps. Another way - diamond drilling of holes in concrete will have to be used in order to make technological holes.
Существует множество видов стяжки, но наиболее распространенной среди них является ее concrete разновидность. Состоит такой раствор из цемента, песка и щебенки (см.также статью «Бетонная стяжка пола своими руками: пошаговое описание»).
They are kneaded in a certain proportion, which depends on the brand of concrete produced. For apartments and private houses, the type M200 is most suitable, in which the indicated components are in a ratio of 1: 3: 5.
You can find out more information on this issue from the video in this article.