Aerated concrete blocks: general concepts and manufacturing

Recently, various types of cellular concrete, which are produced in the form of blocks or panels, have become popular in modern construction. At the same time, there are so many types of such products that quite often disputes arise between the masters regarding the choice of one or another type of material. The question of what aerated concrete blocks are and where they can be used is particularly acute, since this product is very different from other products of this type.

Amateur photo of the structure completely created from this material

Manufacturing process and general concepts

To begin with, it is necessary to say that this type of material is produced fairly, but only in our time has it found such active use. However, in the past it was produced using GOST 21520 89, which met the requirements of cellular concrete and assumed drying at atmospheric pressure or with the use of heaters.

In modern construction, preference is given to products that gain strength in an autoclave under the influence of water vapor.

Various products created on the basis of aerated concrete

Delusion

Some novice masters quite often make a very common mistake, calling this material a foam block. This is due to the fact that it has a similar structure and, at first glance, the same parameters.

Comparison of the structure of the two materials when considering the cut section

However, it should be noted that these are two completely different materials. Even the most common aerated concrete blocks will have completely different technical characteristics and even their thermal conductivity is completely different in comparison with foam concrete.

It is worth noting that at first glance all the differences of exactly the same materials appear exactly during the manufacturing process. However, to distinguish what it is quite simple. It is enough to immerse the product in water and what remains on the surface will be foam concrete, and by cutting it you can see that the porous structure has capsules of different sizes.

Tip! It is necessary to be very careful when choosing such a material, since one of its main differences from other types of cellular concrete is strength.

Comparative table of the advantages and disadvantages of the two blocks of cellular concrete of different types of production

Manufacturing

  • First of all, prepare a mixture of sand and cement. However, it should immediately be said that
  • Aerated concrete blocks are preferably made of quartz sand and alkaline cement.
Graphic diagram of the simplest process of manufacturing aerated concrete, used in some industries
  • Also in the composition can be added a small amount of lime, plasticizer and slag.
  • At the next stage, stirring is carefully done with gradual addition of water.
  • Further the instruction for manufacturing assumes addition of the foaming reagent. Usually aluminum dust is used as it. It reacts with other components and begins to release hydrogen, which is stored in the form of bubbles.
Autoclave with batch of blocks
  • It is worth noting that it is at this stage that the solution is cast in forms. They have the appearance of large slabs and are only half filled. Under the influence of gas-forming processes, the volume of the mixture almost doubles and begins to solidify.
  • After the mass hardens it is cut into blocks with the required dimensions. This can be done even with your own hands, since the strength of the products at this stage is minimal. In some industries, this stage is performed after heat treatment, but then the slab is covered with special equipment.
The integral block before its subsequent cutting
  • Next, the finished product is placed in an autoclave, where it is dried using water vapor. In this case, the strength of products increases dramatically.
  • It should be noted that such blocks will gain the final hardness only on the ninetieth day after pouring. Therefore, they all this time left in stock.

Tip! Choosing a similar material, you should ask the seller or the manufacturer for a certificate of quality and compliance. It must contain all the properties and characteristics of products.

The equipment necessary for production is quite expensive, but it pays for itself very quickly due to the volumes

Characteristics and scope

To begin with, it should be noted that all the properties of this material are determined from the samples taken at the stage of cutting the casting into blocks. At the same time, GOST on aerated concrete requires that they undergo heat treatment together with products made from the same form.

Table of comparative characteristics of aerated concrete and foam concrete

Strength

It should be noted that this type of material is very often referred to as light types of concrete. This is due to the fact that it has a cellular structure and is lightweight.

However, in its strength, it can even compete with some grades of heavy concrete.

Even a regular saw will allow to process this material right on the object.
  • It is important to note that the carrying capacity of aerated concrete blocks practically does not limit the number of floors of buildings. At the same time, all other types of light compositions cannot boast of such qualities, and buildings from them are usually limited to two floors.
  • Even with such strength, this material is very simple in processing. It is perfectly sawed, drilled and you can even hammer in nails. It should be noted that the tool without carbide cutting surfaces is suitable for machining.
Such blocks can withstand enormous pressure, which is very often used by designers when creating houses above two floors.
  • Even with such strength, the weight of the final product remains relatively small, which allows to simplify the design and use less durable bases in the work.
  • Among the disadvantages of this product is high price. However, the totality of all its advantages fully justifies such expenses.

Tip! When building houses of aerated concrete, you need to use projects that were developed specifically for this material. So you can avoid overspending and take into account all its features.

When creating houses from this material, you can even use special jumpers and other elements of mounting from it.

additional characteristics

Considering the fact that aerated concrete is created by a chemical reaction, air bubbles may be present in its structure, which are interconnected. Therefore, products made of it can pass air and even moisture. Given this final structure, will need additional waterproofing.

Excellent thermal conductivity

It is worth noting that it is generally accepted that the pore structure of aerated concrete is closed. However, it is his performance on water absorption and air transmission above.

Also, this material can not be called absolute insulation. It perfectly keeps the temperature inside, and its indicators can be called one of the highest. But in regions of the country with a cold climate it is worthwhile to install additional protection.

Some types of such products have a convenient design, which greatly facilitates the installation process.

One of the advantages of this product is sound insulation of aerated concrete blocks. Due to their structure, they perfectly absorb all sorts of vibrations, which is quite often the main reason for choosing such a material for the construction of certain buildings.

Special attention should be paid to the fact that the manufacture of blocks does not use crushed stone. Therefore, the level of natural radiation in comparison with a conventional loaf is much lower.

Tip! When purchasing this product, you should ask the seller for a certificate of compliance with environmental regulations. The fact is that some unscrupulous manufacturers use in the creation of such a material harmful substances, albeit in minimal quantities. Therefore, it is better to be confident in the purchased product.

Ready foundation of aerated concrete blocks

Application area

The standard application of aerated concrete blocks is to build walls.

It uses standard masonry, as when working with stone.

Building made of aerated concrete blocks
  • Also blocks of this material can be used to strengthen the design. Usually, designers use them to make corners of buildings, where foam concrete or other cellular products act as the main element in the masonry.
  • Recently foundations made from blocks of this type have become popular.. They are perfectly tolerate various loads and with proper waterproofing have a great life.
Some types of such products allow for reinforcement in place, which makes it possible to create reinforcements and belts, bypassing the formwork erection stage.
  • It is worth noting other products of such concrete, which are often used in construction. These include jumpers, floor slabs and some segments of the structure. In fact, if necessary, you can make the necessary part yourself from a single large block.
  • Given that the method of manufacturing the final product requires appropriate processing, it is not used for casting on the construction site.

Tip! Recently, various additional products of this material have begun to appear that can be used in construction. However, before acquiring them you need to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of a particular type and their compliance with the project.

Using the correct approach during installation, such a building can turn out to have a structure that has a good appearance even without finishing.

Conclusion

After reading the video in this article, you can get more information about this type of building material. At the same time making a conclusion on the basis of the article that is given above, it is worth noting that this type of concrete has become very popular due to its positive qualities and excellent indicators.

However, such assertions are true only in cases where aerated concrete blocks are manufactured according to GOST. Other types of similar products may have a number of different flaws and flaws.

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